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Quercus cerris

Quercus cerris, Photo: Michael Lahanas

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fagales

Familia: Fagaceae
Genus: Quercus
Species: Quercus cerris
Name

Quercus cerris L., Sp. Pl. 2: 997 (1753).
Synonyms

Homotypic
Quercus lanuginosa Lam., Fl. Franç. 2: 209 (1779), nom. illeg.
Quercus echinata Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 393 (1796), nom. superfl.
Heterotypic
Quercus cerris var. longimucronata Hausskn. in ?.
Quercus frondosa Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 7: n.º 3 (1759).
Quercus aegilops Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 2: 241 (1771), sensu auct.
Quercus crinita Lam., Encycl. 1: 718 (1785).
Cerris crinita (Lam.) Raf., Alsogr. Amer.: 29 (1838).
Quercus haliphlaeos Lam., Encycl. 1: 718 (1785).
Quercus cerris var. haliphlaeos (Lam.) Lam. in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck & A.P.de Candolle, Fl. Franç. 3: 311 (1779).
Quercus austriaca Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 4: 454 (1805).
Cerris austriaca (Willd.) Raf., Alsogr. Amer.: 29 (1838).
Quercus cerris var. austriaca (Willd.) Loudon, Arbor. Frutic. Brit. 3: 1848 (1838).
Quercus cerris subsp. austriaca (Willd.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 661 (1881).
Quercus tournefortii Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 4: 453 (1805).
Quercus cerris var. tournefortii (Willd.) K.Koch, Linnaea 22: 321 (1849).
Quercus cerris subsp. tournefortii (Willd.) O.Schwarz, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 33: 329 (1934).
Quercus cerris var. aegilops DC. in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck & A.P.de Candolle, Fl. Franç., ed. 3, 5: 354 (1815).
Quercus cerris var. crinita DC. in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck & A.P.de Candolle, Fl. Franç., ed. 3, 5: 354 (1815).
Quercus secondatii Steud., Nomencl. Bot. 1: 674 (1821).
Quercus cerris var. pendula Neill in W.Gilpin, Rem. Forest Scen. 1: 73 (1834).
Quercus cerris lusus pendula (Neill) Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 4: 462 (1911).
Quercus cerris f. pendula (Neill) A.Camus, Chênes, Texte 1: 601 (1938).
Cerris australis Raf., Alsogr. Amer.: 29 (1838).
Cerris paliphleos Raf., Alsogr. Amer.: 29 (1838).
Quercus cerris var. laciniata Loudon, Arbot. Frutic. Brit. 3: 856 (1838).
Quercus cerris f. laciniata (Loudon) C.K.Schneid., Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 181 (1904).
Quercus ragnal Lodd. ex Loudon, Arbor. Frutic. Brit. 3: 1849 (1838).
Quercus cana Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 426 (1841).
Quercus crispa Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 426 (1841).
Quercus frondosa Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 426 (1841).
Quercus variegata Lodd. ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 428 (1841).
Quercus pseudocerris Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. 12: 118 (1853).
Quercus cerris var. pseudocerris (Boiss.) Boiss., Fl. Orient. 4: 1171 (1879).
Quercus cerris f. cyclloloba Borbás, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 22 (1857).
Quercus cerris var. sinuata Schur, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 22 (1857).
Quercus cerris var. caramanica Kotschy ex Tchich., Asia Min., Bot. 3(2): 469 (1860), nom. nud.
Quercus asplenifolia A.DC. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 16(2): 42 (1864).
Quercus heterophylla A.DC. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 16(2): 42 (1864).
Quercus cerris var. bipinnatifida Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 608 (1866).
Quercus aegilops var. alba de Vos, Bered. Woordenboek: 95 (1867).
Quercus cerris var. lanuginosa de Vos, Bered. Woordenboek: 96 (1867).
Quercus raynal K.Koch, Dendrologie 2(2): 77 (1873).
Quercus recurvisquamosa St.-Lag., Cat. Fl. Bass. Rhone: 674 (1882).
Quercus nicotrae Lojac., Fl. Sicul. 2(2): 375 (1907).
Quercus ambrozyana Simonk., Magyar Bot. Lapok 8: 355 (1909).
Quercus cerris var. ambrozyana (Simonk.) Rehder, Man. Cult. Trees: 172 (1927).
Quercus tukhtensis Czeczott, Acta Soc. Bot. Poloniae 9: 44 (1932).
Quercus cerris var. bithynica A.Camus, Chênes, Texte 1: 600 (1938).
Quercus cerris f. lancifolia Georgescu & Morariu, Analele Inst. Cercet. Exp. Forest. 9: 139 (1943).
Quercus cerris f. macrophylla Georgescu & Morariu, Analele Inst. Cercet. Exp. Forest. 9: 138 (1943).
Quercus thracica Stef. & Nedjalkov, Izv. Bot. Inst. (Sofia) 5: 39 (1956).
Quercus cerris subf. acutiloba Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 332 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris subf. acutilobata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 331 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris subf. acutobipinnata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 332 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris subf. acutodentata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 332 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris subf. acutolaciniata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 333 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris subf. acutomucronata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 331 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris f. balatae Boros ex Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 332 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris f. basi-cuneata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 332 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris subf. basicordata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 332 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris subf. dentatolaciniata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 333 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris f. laciniatolyrata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 333 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris f. leviterlobata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 333 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris subf. lobatolaciniata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 333 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris subf. mucronata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 331 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris subf. mucronatobipinnata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 332 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris subf. mucronatopinnata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 332 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris subf. pinnatilobata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 332 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris f. roborilobata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 333 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris subf. rotundatolaciniata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 333 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris subf. rotundatolobata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 331 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris subf. rotundilobata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 332 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris f. sinuatolobata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 331 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris subf. sublobata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 331 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris subf. submucronata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 332 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris subf. subpinnatolobata Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 332 (1970 publ. 1971).
Quercus cerris f. verae-csapodyae Mátyás, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 331 (1970 publ. 1971).

Homonyms

Quercus cerris Pall. = Quercus pubescens subsp. pubescens
Quercus cerris DC. = Quercus pyrenaica Willd.
Quercus cerris Blanco = Castanopsis javanica (Blume) A.DC.

Hybrids

Quercus × crenata

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Europe
Regional: Middle Europe
Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Switzerland.
Regional: Southwestern Europe
France.
Regional: Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Kriti (doubtful), Romania, Sicilia, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia.
Continental: Asia-Temperate
Regional: Western Asia
East Aegean Islands, Lebanon-Syria, Turkey.
Continental: Australasia
Regional: New Zealand
New Zealand South.
Continental: Northern America
Regional: Northeastern U.S.A.
New York.
Note: Grey script indicates introduced occurrences.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 997. Reference page.

Additional references

Govaerts, R.H.A. & Frodin, D. 1998. World Checklist and Bibliography of Fagales (Betulaceae, Corylaceae, Fagaceae and Ticodendraceae). VIII + 408 p. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 1-900347-46-6. Reference page.
Lambinon, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R. & Garnock-Jones, P.J. 1988. Flora of New Zealand. Volume IV: Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons. Christchurch: Botany Division, LXVIII, 1365 pp., ISBN 0-477-02529-3. Reference page.
Bean, W. J. 1976. Trees and Shrubs hardy in the British Isles.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Quercus cerris in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 28. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Quercus cerris in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 28. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Quercus cerris. Published online. Accessed: Jun 28 2021.
Tropicos.org 2021. Quercus cerris. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 28.
Hassler, M. 2021. Quercus cerris. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 28. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. . Quercus cerris. Accessed: 28 Jun 2021.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Quercus cerris in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
български: Цер
bosanski: Hrast cer
čeština: Dub cer
dansk: Frynse-Eg
Deutsch: Zerr-Eiche
English: Turkey Oak
suomi: Turkintammi
français: Chêne chevelu
hrvatski: Hrast cer
hornjoserbsce: Burgundski dub
magyar: Csertölgy, cserfa
italiano: Cerro
latviešu: Austrijas ozols
македонски: Цер
Nederlands: Moseik
polski: Dąb burgundzki
slovenščina: Cer
српски / srpski: Цер
svenska: Turkisk ek
Türkçe: Saçlı meşe

Quercus cerris, the Turkey oak or Austrian oak,[2][3] is an oak native to south-eastern Europe and Asia Minor. It is the type species of Quercus sect. Cerris, a section of the genus characterised by shoot buds surrounded by soft bristles, bristle-tipped leaf lobes, and acorns that usually mature in 18 months.

Description

Quercus cerris is a large deciduous tree growing to 25–40 m tall with a trunk up to 2 m diameter. The bark is dark grey and deeply furrowed. On mature trees the bark fissures are often streaked orange near the base of the trunk. The glossy leaves are 7–14 cm long and 3–5 cm wide, with 6–12 triangular lobes on each side; the regularity of the lobing varies greatly, with some trees having very regular lobes, others much less regular.

The flowers are wind-pollinated catkins, maturing about 18 months after pollination; the fruit is a large acorn, 2.5–4 cm long and 2 cm broad, bicoloured with an orange basal half grading to a green-brown tip; the acorn cup is 2 cm deep, densely covered in soft 4–8 mm long 'mossy' bristles. First year acorns are very bitter, but are eaten by jays and pigeons; squirrels usually only eat them when other food sources have run out.

The tree harbours the gall wasp Andricus quercuscalicis whose larvae seriously damage the acorns of native British oaks. In 1998, the Ministry of Defence ordered the felling of all Turkey oaks on its UK bases.

Cultivation and uses

The species' range extended to northern Europe and the British Isles before the previous ice age, about 120,000 years ago. It was reintroduced in the United Kingdom and in Ireland in the eighteenth century as an ornamental tree,[4] its gall wasps now provide early food for birds.[5]

Turkey oak is widely planted and is naturalised in much of Europe. This is partly for its relatively fast growth. It is used as an ornamental, and as a coastal windbreak. The wood has many of the characteristics of other oaks, but is very prone to crack and split and hence is relegated to such uses as fencing. Several cultivars have been selected, including 'Variegata', a variegated cultivar, and 'Woden', with large, deeply lobed leaves.
Hybrids

Turkey oak readily hybridises with cork oak (Q. suber), the resulting hybrid being named Q. × crenata Lam. This hybrid occurs both naturally where its parents' ranges overlap in the wild, and has also arisen in cultivation. It is a very variable medium to large tree, usually semi-evergreen, sometimes nearly completely so, and often with marked hybrid vigour; its bark is thick and fissured but never as thick as that of the cork oak. Numerous cultivars are available, often grafted onto Turkey oak root stock. These include 'Ambrozyana', evergreen except in severe winters, originating from the Mlyňany Arboretum in Slovakia, home of the late Count Ambrozy; 'Diversifolia', with the leaves extremely deeply cut leaving a narrow strip down the centre, and very corky bark; 'Fulhamensis' (Fulham oak), raised at Osborne's nursery in Fulham c.1760; and 'Lucombeana' (Lucombe oak), raised by William Lucombe at his nursery in Exeter c. 1762. An early specimen raised by Lucombe is at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.[6] A similar Lucombe oak was felled by fungus and a light wind in Phear Park, Exmouth 15 February 2009.
See also

Knopper gall
Oak marble gall

References

"Quercus cerris L." Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
Speer, James H. (2010). Fundamentals of Tree-Ring Research. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press. p. 270.
Fonseca, Matthew A. (2005). The Measurement of Roundwood: Methodologies and Conversion Ratios. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. p. 242.
"The Definitive List of British Oak Trees & Their History | EHBP". English Heritage Buildings. 2018-02-16. Retrieved 2018-03-21.
BBC News, " Ancient tree helps birds survive", 17 August 2008 Accessed 18 August 2008.
"Lucombe oak". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 4 June 2006.

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