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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Alismatales

Familia: Araceae
Subfamilia: Monsteroideae
Genus: Rhaphidophora
Species: R. acuminata – R. africana – R. angustata – R. araea – R. australasica – R. balgooyi – R. banosensis – R. beccarii – R. bogneri – R. bonii – R. brevispathacea – R. burkilliana – R. calophylla – R. chevalieri – R. conica – R. conocephala – R. corneri – R. crassicaulis – R. crassifolia – R. cravenschoddeana – R. cretosa – R. cryptantha – R. cylindrosperma – R. dahlii – R. decursiva – R. discolor – R. dulongensis – R. elliptica – R. elliptifolia – R. elmeri – R. falcata – R. floresensis – R. foraminifera – R. formosana – R. fortis – R. geniculata – R. glauca – R. gorokensis – R. guamensis – R. hayi – R. hongkongensis – R. hookeri – R. intonsa – R. intrusa – R. jubata – R. kokodensis – R. koordersii – R. korthalsii – R. lacduongensis – R. laichauensis – R. lancifolia – R. latevaginata – R. liukiuensis – R. lobbii – R. luchunensis – R. maingayi – R. megaphylla – R. megasperma – R. megastigma – R. microspadix – R. mima – R. minor – R. moluccensis – R. montana – R. monticola – R. neoguineensis – R. nicolsonii – R. okapensis – R. oligosperma – R. ovoidea – R. pachyphylla – R. parvifolia – R. peepla – R. peeploides – R. perkinsiae – R. pertusa – R. petrieana – R. philippinensis – R. pilosa – R. puberula – R. pusilla – R. sabit – R. sarasinorum – R. schlechteri – R. schottii – R. spathacea – R. spuria – R. stenophylla – R. stolleana – R. sulcata – R. sylvestris – R. talamauana – R. tenuis – R. ternatensis – R. tetrasperma – R. teysmanniana – R. todayensis – R. tonkinensis – R. typha – R. ustulata – R. versteegii – R. waria
Source(s) of checklist:
Species: R. angustata - R. decursiva - R. foraminifera - R. montana - R. schlechteri -

Name

Rhaphidophora Hassk., 1842

Type Species: Rhaphidophora lacera Hassk.

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Raphidophora Hassk., Tijdschr. Natuurl. Gesch. Physiol. 9: 168 (1842), orth. var.
Afrorhaphidophora Engl. in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., Nachtr. 3: 31 (1906).

References

Tam, S.-M., Boyce, P.C., Upson, T.M., Barabé, D., Bruneau, A., Forest, F & Parker, J.S. 2004. Intergeneric and infrafamilial phylogeny of subfamily Monsteroideae (Araceae) revealed by chloroplast <011>trnL-F sequences. American Journal of Botany 91(3): 490-498. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.91.3.490 PDF Reference page.
Hasskarl, J.C. 1842. Flora 25(2 Beibl. 1): 11

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Rhaphidophora in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 12. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Rhaphidophora. Published online. Accessed: Nov. 12 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Rhaphidophora in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 12.
Tropicos.org 2018. Rhaphidophora. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 12.

Rhaphidophora is a genus in the family Araceae, occurring from tropical Africa eastwards through Malesia and Australasia to the Western Pacific. The genus consists of approximately 100 species.

Description

This is a genus of evergreen, robust, climbing plants. The flowers are bisexual, lacking a perigone. The spathe is shed after flowering. The ovules number eight or more and are superposed on two (rarely 3) parietal placentas of the ovary. The flowers produce many, ellipsoid, straight seeds with a brittle and smooth outer coat (testa).

These are hemiepiphytes, plants capable of beginning life as a seed and sending roots to the soil, or beginning as a terrestrial plant that climbs a tree and then sends roots back to the soil. In rare cases they are terrestrial rheophytes (plants that grow in fast-flowing water).

Their bast fibers have typically abundant, long and slender trichosclereids, merging with the fibers of the sclerenchyma. If the blade of the leaf is torn, many hairs become apparent. The leaf stalks bend abruptly at their top. The leaf margin is entire. The leaves are pinnatifid to pinnatisect (cut with deep opposite lobing). The leaf venation is parallel (with veins running parallel for the length of the leaf), pinnate (one mid-vein with smaller veins branching off laterally) to reticulate (feather-veined).
Chemistry

Six compounds extracted from the dried leaves and stems of Rhaphidophora decursiva have been shown to possess activity against the malarial agent Plasmodium falciparum. Polysyphorin and rhaphidecurperoxin showed the strongest antimalarial activity, while rhaphidecursinol A, rhaphidecursinol B, grandisin, and epigrandisin were less active. Rhaphidecursinol A and rhaphidecursinol B were determined to be neolignans, a major class of phytoestrogens, while rhaphidecurperoxin is a new benzoperoxide.[2]
Heterotypic synonyms

Raphidophora Hassk., Tijdschr. Natuurl. Gesch. Physiol. 9: 168 (1842), orth. var.
Afrorhaphidophora Engl. in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., Nachtr. 3: 31 (1906).

Taxonomy

Research on the chloroplast DNA sequence data (trnL-F) has shown that Rhaphidophora and Epipremnum are paraphyletic, forming three informal groups with other genera of the paraphyletic tribe Monstereae. This may result in taxonomic changes in this genus.[3] The genera Rhaphidophora, Epipremnum, and Monstera are poorly differentiated.

One cultivar Rhaphidophora excelsa `Exotica' has been recognized.[4]
Species
Rhaphidophora korthalsii
Raphidophora pertusa

Rhaphidophora acuminata Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C 10: 265 (1915).
Rhaphidophora africana N.E.Br., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1897: 286 (1897).
Rhaphidophora angustata Schott, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 1: 128 (1863).
Rhaphidophora araea P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 52: 116 (2000).
Rhaphidophora australasica F.M.Bailey, Queensland Agric. J. 1: 453 (1897).
Rhaphidophora balgooyi P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 52: 118 (2000).
Rhaphidophora banosensis P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 52: 222 (2000 publ. 2001).
Rhaphidophora beccarii (Engl.) Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 1: 181 (1881).
Rhaphidophora bogneri P.C.Boyce & Haigh
Rhaphidophora bonii Engl. & K.Krause in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenr., IV, 23B: 34 (1908).
Rhaphidophora brevispathacea Engl. & K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54: 79 (1916).
Rhaphidophora calophylla Schott, Prodr. Syst. Aroid.: 380 (1860).
Rhaphidophora calophylla Schott
Rhaphidophora chevalieri Gagnep., Notul. Syst. (Paris) 9: 136 (1941).
Rhaphidophora conica Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 1: 181 (1881).
Rhaphidophora conocephala Alderw., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg III, 1: 384 (1920).
Rhaphidophora corneri P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 51: 205 (1999).
Rhaphidophora crassicaulis Engl. & K.Krause in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenr., IV, 23B: 52 (1908).
Rhaphidophora crassifolia Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 543 (1893).
Rhaphidophora cravenschoddeana P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 53: 96 (2001).
Rhaphidophora cretosa P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 52: 228 (2000).
Rhaphidophora cryptantha P.C.Boyce & C.M.Allen, Gard. Bull. Singapore 53: 99 (2001).
Rhaphidophora cylindrosperma Engl. & K.Krause in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenr., IV, 23B: 28 (1908).
Rhaphidophora dahlii Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 8 (1898).
Rhaphidophora decursiva (Roxb.) Schott, Bonplandia (Hannover) 5: 45 (1857).
Rhaphidophora discolor Engl. & K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54: 80 (1916).
Rhaphidophora dulongensis H.Li, Acta Bot. Yunnan., Suppl. 5: 7 (1992).
Rhaphidophora elliptica Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 44: 186 (1905).
Rhaphidophora elliptifolia Merr., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc., Spec. No.: 88 (1921).
Rhaphidophora elmeri Engl. & K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 44(101): 11 (1910).
Rhaphidophora falcata Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 44: 198 (1905).
Rhaphidophora floresensis P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 52: 126 (2000).
Rhaphidophora foraminifera (Engl.) Engl., Pflanzenr., IV, 23B: 45 (1908).
Rhaphidophora formosana Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 10 (1898).
Rhaphidophora fortis P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 53: 104 (2001).
Rhaphidophora geniculata Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 7 (1898).
Rhaphidophora glauca (Wall.) Schott, Bonplandia (Hannover) 5: 45 (1857).
Rhaphidophora gorokensis P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 53: 111 (2001).
Rhaphidophora guamensis P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 53: 112 (2001).
Rhaphidophora hayi P.C.Boyce & Bogner, Gard. Bull. Singapore 52: 91 (2000).
Rhaphidophora honkongensis Schott, Prodr. Syst. Aroid.: 378 (1860).
Rhaphidophora hookeri Schott, Prodr. Syst. Aroid.: 381 (1860).
Rhaphidophora intonsa P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 53: 119 (2001).
Rhaphidophora intrusa P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 53: 120 (2001).
Rhaphidophora jubata P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 53: 124 (2001).
Rhaphidophora kokodensis P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 53: 127 (2001).
Rhaphidophora koordersii Engl.
Rhaphidophora korthalsii Schott, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 1: 129 (1863).
Rhaphidophora lacduongensis V.D.Nguyen & B.H.Quang (2015)
Rhaphidophora laichauensis Gagnep., Notul. Syst. (Paris) 9: 137 (1941).
Rhaphidophora lancifolia Schott
Rhaphidophora latevaginata M.Hotta, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 22: 4 (1966).
Rhaphidophora liukiuensis Hatus.
Rhaphidophora lobbii Schott, Prodr. Syst. Aroid.: 379 (1860).
Rhaphidophora luchunensis H.Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 15(2): 103 (1977).
Rhaphidophora maingayi Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 543 (1893).
Rhaphidophora megaphylla H.Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 15(2): 102 (1977).
Rhaphidophora megasperma Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 8 (1898).
Rhaphidophora megastigma Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 1: 180 (1881).
Rhaphidophora microspadix K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 49: 92 (1912).
Rhaphidophora mima P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 53: 138 (2001).
Rhaphidophora minor Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 544 (1893).
Rhaphidophora moluccensis Engl. & K.Krause in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenr., IV, 23B: 36 (1908).
Rhaphidophora montana (Blume) Schott, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 1: 128 (1863).
Rhaphidophora monticola K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 44(101): 12 (1910).
Rhaphidophora neoguineensis Engl. in K.M.Schumann & U.M.Hollrung, Fl. Kais. Wilh. Land: 19 (1889).
Rhaphidophora nicolsonii P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 51: 236 (1999).
Rhaphidophora nicolsonii P.C.Boyce
Rhaphidophora okapensis P.C.Boyce & Bogner, Gard. Bull. Singapore 52: 94 (2000).
Rhaphidophora oligosperma Alderw., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg III, 4: 340 (1922).
Rhaphidophora ovoidea A.Chev., J. Bot. (Morot) 22: 135 (1909).
Rhaphidophora pachyphylla K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 49: 92 (1912).
Rhaphidophora parvifolia Alderw., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg III, 4: 338 (1922).
Rhaphidophora peepla (Roxb.) Schott, Bonplandia (Hannover) 5: 45 (1857).
Rhaphidophora peeploides Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 7 (1898).
Rhaphidophora perkinsiae Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 115 (1905).
Rhaphidophora pertusa (Roxb.) Schott, Bonplandia (Hannover) 5: 45 (1857).
Rhaphidophora petrieana A.Hay, Telopea 5: 295 (1993).
Rhaphidophora philippinensis Engl. & K.Krause in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenr., IV, 23B: 137 (1908).
Rhaphidophora pilosa P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 53: 151 (2001).
Rhaphidophora puberula Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 1: 180 (1881).
Rhaphidophora pusilla N.E.Br.
Rhaphidophora sabit P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 52: 161 (2000).
Rhaphidophora sarasinorum Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 114 (1905).
Rhaphidophora schlechteri K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 49: 94 (1912).
Rhaphidophora schottii Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 544 (1893).
Rhaphidophora sonlaensis V.D.Nguyen & P.C.Boyce.
Rhaphidophora spathacea Schott, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 1: 129 (1863).
Rhaphidophora spuria (Schott) Nicolson, Allertonia 1: 348 (1978).
Rhaphidophora stenophylla K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 49: 94 (1912).
Rhaphidophora stolleana Engl. & K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54: 79 (1916).
Rhaphidophora sulcata Gagnep., Notul. Syst. (Paris) 9: 137 (1941).
Rhaphidophora sylvestris (Blume) Engl. in A.L.P.de Candolle & A.C.P.de Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 2: 239 (1879).
Rhaphidophora talamauana Alderw., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg III, 1: 384 (1920).
Rhaphidophora tenuis Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 1: 181 (1881).
Rhaphidophora ternatensis Alderw., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg III, 4: 194 (1922).
Rhaphidophora tetrasperma Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 548 (1893).
Rhaphidophora teysmanniana Engl. & K.Krause in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenr., IV, 23B: 35 (1908).
Rhaphidophora todayensis K.Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45: 658 (1911).
Rhaphidophora tonkinensis Engl. & K.Krause in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenr., IV, 23B: 34 (1908).
Rhaphidophora typha P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 57: 211 (2005).
Rhaphidophora ustulata P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 52: 176 (2000).
Rhaphidophora versteegii Engl. & K.Krause, Nova Guinea 8: 248 (1910).
Rhaphidophora waria P.C.Boyce, Gard. Bull. Singapore 53: 174 (2001).

Epipremnum aureum was once categorized in this genus.
Footnotes

Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Hong-Jie Zhang; Pamela A. Tamez; Vu Dinh Hoang; Ghee Teng Tan; Nguyen Van Hung; Le Thi Xuan; Le Mai Huong; Nguyen Manh Cuong; Do Thi Thao; D. Doel Soejarto; Harry H. S. Fong & John M. Pezzuto (June 2001). "Antimalarial Compounds from Rhaphidophora decursiva". J. Nat. Prod. 64 (6): 772–777. doi:10.1021/np010037c. PMID 11421741.
TAM Sheh-May; BOYCE Peter C.; UPSON Tim M.; BARABE Denis; BRUNEAU Anne; FOREST Felix; PARKER John S. (2004). "Intergeneric and infrafamilial phylogeny of subfamily Monsteroideae (Araceae) revealed by chloroplast trnL-F sequences". American Journal of Botany. 91 (3): 490–498. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.3.490. PMID 21653404.

Aroid cultivar registry Archived 2008-05-14 at the Wayback Machine

References
Boyce, P.C. (1999). "The genus Rhaphidophora Hassk. (Araceae-Monsteroideae-Monstereae) in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore". Singapore Gardens Bulletin. 51: 183–256.
Boyce, P.C. (2000). "The genus Rhaphidophora Hassk. (Araceae-Monsteroideae-Monstereae) in the southern and western, Indonesian archipelago". Singapore Gardens Bulletin. 52: 101–183.
Boyce, P.C. & Bogner J. (2000). "An account of neotenic species of Rhaphidophora Hassk. (Araceae-Monsteroideae-Monstereae) in New Guinea and Australia". Singapore Gardens Bulletin. 52: 89–100.
Boyce, P.C. (2000). "The genus Rhaphidophora Hassk. (Araceae-Monsteroideae-Monstereae) in the Philippines". Singapore Gardens Bulletin. 52: 213–256.
Boyce, P.C. (2001). "The genus Rhaphidophora Hassk. (Araceae-Monsteroideae-Monstereae) in Borneo". Singapore Gardens Bulletin. 53: 19–75.
Boyce, P.C. (2001). "The genus Rhaphidophora Hassk. (Araceae-Monsteroideae-Monstereae) in New Guinea, Australia and the tropical Western Pacific". Singapore Gardens Bulletin. 53: 77–187.

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