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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Alismatales
Familiae: Alismataceae - Aponogetonaceae - Araceae - Butomaceae - Cymodoceaceae - Hydrocharitaceae - Juncaginaceae - MaundiaceaePosidoniaceae - PotamogetonaceaeRuppiaceaeScheuchzeriaceae - Tofieldiaceae - Zosteraceae

Name

Alismatales R.Br. ex Bercht. & J.Presl (1820)

Type genus: Alisma L., Sp. Pl. 1: 342 (1753)

Synonyms

Aponogetonales Hutch. (1934)
Arales Dumort. (1829)
Butomales Hutch. (1934)
Cymodoceales Nakai (1943)
Elodeales Nakai (1950)
Hydrocharitales Dumort. (1829)
Juncaginales Hutch. (1934)
Najadales Dumort. (1829)
Posidoniales Nakai (1943)
Potamogetonales Dumort. (1829)
Ruppiales Nakai (1950)
Scheuchzeriales B.Boivin (1956)
Tofieldiales Reveal & Zomlefer (1998)
Vallisneriales Nakai (1949)
Zosterales Nakai (1943)

References

Brown, R. 1820. O Prirozenosti Rostlin 271.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2003. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141(4): 399–436. DOI: 10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x Open access Reference page.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161(2): 105–121. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x Open access Reference page.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181(1): 1–20. DOI: 10.1111/boj.12385 Reference page.
Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2013. Alismatales. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Sept. 16.
International Plant Names Index. 2013. Alismatales. Published online. Accessed: 16 Sept. 2013.
Les, D.H., & Tippery, N.P. 2013. In time and with water... The systematics of alismatid monocotyledons. Pp. 118-164, in Wilkin, P., & Mayo, S. J. (eds), Early Events in Monocot Evolution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [Systematics Association Special Volume 83.] Full text PDF

Vernacular names
العربية: مزماريات
azərbaycanca: Baqəvərçiçəklilər
беларуская: Шальнікакветныя
català: Alismatal
corsu: Alismatali
čeština: žabníkotvaré
dansk: Skeblad-ordenen
Deutsch: Froschlöffelartige
English: alismatids
eesti: Konnarohulaadsed
فارسی: قاشق‌واش‌سانان
עברית: כף צפרדע
hrvatski: Žabočunolike
magyar: Hídőrvirágúak
italiano: Alismatali
日本語: オモダカ目
한국어: 택사목
kurdî: Koma pelkevçiyan
lietuvių: Dumblialaiškiečiai
latviešu: cirveņu rinda
Nederlands: Waterweegbreeachtigen
polski: Żabieńcowce
русский: Частухоцветные
slovenčina: žabníkotvaré
svenska: Svaltingordningen
ไทย: อันดับขาเขียด
українська: Частухоцвіті
Tiếng Việt: Bộ Trạch tả
中文: 澤瀉目

The Alismatales (alismatids) are an order of flowering plants including about 4500 species. Plants assigned to this order are mostly tropical or aquatic. Some grow in fresh water, some in marine habitats.

Description

The Alismatales comprise herbaceous flowering plants of often aquatic and marshy habitats, and the only monocots known to have green embryos other than the Amaryllidaceae. They also include the only marine angiosperms growing completely submerged, the seagrasses.[2] The flowers are usually arranged in inflorescences, and the mature seeds lack endosperm.

Both marine and freshwater forms include those with staminate flowers that detach from the parent plant and float to the surface. There they can pollinate carpellate flowers floating on the surface via long pedicels.[3] In others, pollination occurs underwater, where pollen may form elongated strands, increasing chance of success. Most aquatic species have a totally submerged juvenile phase, and flowers are either floating or emergent. Vegetation may be totally submersed, have floating leaves, or protrude from the water. Collectively, they are commonly known as "water plantain".[4]
Taxonomy

The Alismatales contain about 165 genera in 13 families, with a cosmopolitan distribution. Phylogenetically, they are basal monocots, diverging early in evolution relative to the lilioid and commelinid monocot lineages.[5] Together with the Acorales, the Alismatales are referred to informally as the alismatid monocots.[6]
Early systems

The Cronquist system (1981) places the Alismatales in subclass Alismatidae, class Liliopsida [= monocotyledons] and includes only three families as shown:

Alismataceae
Butomaceae
Limnocharitaceae

Cronquist's subclass Alismatidae conformed fairly closely to the order Alismatales as defined by APG, minus the Araceae.

The Dahlgren system places the Alismatales in the superorder Alismatanae in the subclass Liliidae [= monocotyledons] in the class Magnoliopsida [= angiosperms] with the following families included:

Alismataceae
Aponogetonaceae
Butomaceae
Hydrocharitaceae
Limnocharitaceae

In Tahktajan's classification (1997), the order Alismatales contains only the Alismataceae and Limnocharitaceae, making it equivalent to the Alismataceae as revised in APG-III. Other families included in the Alismatates as currently defined are here distributed among 10 additional orders, all of which are assigned, with the following exception, to the Subclass Alismatidae. Araceae in Tahktajan 1997 is assigned to the Arales and placed in the Subclass Aridae; Tofieldiaceae to the Melanthiales and placed in the Liliidae.[7]
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group

The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system (APG) of 1998 and APG II (2003) assigned the Alismatales to the monocots, which may be thought of as an unranked clade containing the families listed below. The biggest departure from earlier systems (see below) is the inclusion of family Araceae. By its inclusion, the order has grown enormously in number of species. The family Araceae alone accounts for about a hundred genera, totaling over two thousand species. The rest of the families together contain only about five hundred species, many of which are in very small families.[8]

The APG III system (2009) differs only in that the Limnocharitaceae are combined with the Alismataceae; it was also suggested that the genus Maundia (of the Juncaginaceae) could be separated into a monogeneric family, the Maundiaceae, but the authors noted that more study was necessary before the Maundiaceae could be recognized.[1]

order Alismatales sensu APG III

family Alismataceae (including Limnocharitaceae)
family Aponogetonaceae
family Araceae
family Butomaceae
family Cymodoceaceae
family Hydrocharitaceae
family Juncaginaceae
family Posidoniaceae
family Potamogetonaceae
family Ruppiaceae
family Scheuchzeriaceae
family Tofieldiaceae
family Zosteraceae

In APG IV (2016), it was decided that evidence was sufficient to elevate Maundia to family level as the monogeneric Maundiaceae.[8] The authors considered including a number of the smaller orders within the Juncaginaceae, but an online survey of botanists and other users found little support for this "lumping" approach.[9] Consequently, the family structure for APG IV is:
Cladogram of Alismatales[2]

Alismatales

Tofieldiaceae

Alismataceae

Butomaceae

Hydrocharitaceae

Aponogetonaceae

Scheuchzeriaceae

Juncaginaceae

Maundiaceae

Posidoniaceae

Ruppiaceae

Cymodoceaceae

Potamogetonaceae

Zosteraceae

Araceae


family Alismataceae (including Limnocharitaceae)
family Aponogetonaceae
family Araceae
family Butomaceae
family Cymodoceaceae
family Hydrocharitaceae
family Juncaginaceae
family Maundiaceae
family Posidoniaceae
family Potamogetonaceae
family Ruppiaceae
family Scheuchzeriaceae
family Tofieldiaceae
family Zosteraceae

Phylogeny

Cladogram showing the orders of monocots (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal)[10] based on molecular phylogenetic evidence:
Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal[10]

Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal[10]

Acorales

Alismatales

Petrosaviales

Dioscoreales

Pandanales

Liliales

Asparagales

commelinids

Dasypogonaceae

Arecales

Poales

Zingiberales

Commelinales

References

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 105–121, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x
Stevens, P.F. (2001). "Alismatales". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. 14. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
Sullivan, G. & Titus, J.E. (1996). "Physical site characteristics limit pollination and fruit set in the dioecious hydrophilous species, Vallisneria americana". Oecologia. 108 (2): 285–292. Bibcode:1996Oecol.108..285S. doi:10.1007/BF00334653. PMID 28307841. S2CID 13369438.
"-Alismatales (Water Plantains)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
Wilkin & Mayo 2013.
RBG 2010.
-Flowering Plant Gateway
APG IV 2016.
Christenhusz et al. (2015)

Chase & Reveal 2009.

Further reading

B. C. J. du Mortier 1829. Analyse des Familles de Plantes : avec l'indication des principaux genres qui s'y rattachent. Imprimerie de J. Casterman, Tournay
W. S. Judd, C. S. Campbell, E. A. Kellogg, P. F. Stevens, M. J. Donoghue, 2002. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, 2nd edition. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts ISBN 0-87893-403-0.
Wilkin, Paul; Mayo, Simon J, eds. (2013). Early events in monocot evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-01276-9. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2016), Monocots I: General Alismatids & Lilioids, archived from the original on 14 September 2015, retrieved 26 January 2016
Chase, Mark W; Reveal, James L (2009), "A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III" (PDF), Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 122–127, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.01002.x
Les, Donald H; Tippery, Nicholas P. In time and with water ... the systematics of alismatid monocotyledons (PDF). pp. 118–164., in Wilkin & Mayo (2013)
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385.
Christenhusz, Maarten J.M.; Vorontsova, Maria S.; Fay, Michael F. & Chase, Mark W. (August 2015), "Results from an online survey of family delimitation in angiosperms and ferns: recommendations to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group for thorny problems in plant classification", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 178 (4): 501–528, doi:10.1111/boj.12285

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