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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Alismatales

Familia: Alismataceae
Genera: AlbidellaAlisma – Aquarius – AstoniaBaldelliaBurnatia – Butomopsis – CaldesiaDamasoniumEchinodorusHelanthiumHydrocleis – Limnocharis – LimnophytonLuroniumRanalismaSagittariaWiesneria

Paleogenera: †Alismaticarpum – †Sagisma

Name

Alismataceae Vent. Tabl. Regn. Veg. 2: 157. 1799, nom. cons.
Type genus: Alisma L., Sp. Pl. 1: 342–343. 1753.

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Damasoniaceae Nakai, Chosakuronbun Mokuroku [Ord. Fam. Trib. Nov.]: 213. 20 Jul 1943.
Type genus: Damasonium Mill.
Limnocharitaceae Takht. ex Cronquist, Integr. Syst. Class. Fl. Pl.: 1048. 10 Aug 1981.
Type genus: Limnocharis Bonpl.

References

Ventenat, E.P. 1799. Tableau du Règne Végétal, selon de Méthode de Jussieu. Vol. 2. 607 pp. Paris: J. Drisonnier. online at Gallica Reference page. : 157.
Christenhusz, M.J.M., Fay, M.F. & Byng, J.W. (eds). 2018. The Global Flora, Vol. 4: Special Edition, GLOVAP Nomenclature Part 1. Plant Gateway Ltd., Bradford. ISBN 978-0-9929993-9-1 PDF Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Alismataceae in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Mar. 14. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2013. Alismataceae. Published online. Accessed: 16 Sept. 2013.
Tropicos.org 2013. Alismataceae. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Sept. 16.

Vernacular names
العربية: مزمارية
azərbaycanca: Baqəvərkimilər
беларуская: Шальнікавыя
български: Лаваницови
বাংলা: শ্যামাকোলা
català: Alismatàcies
čeština: Žabníkovité
dansk: Skeblad-familien
Deutsch: Froschlöffelgewächse
English: Water-plantain family
Esperanto: Alismacoj
español: Alismatáceas
eesti: Konnarohulised
فارسی: قاشق‌واشیان
suomi: Sarpiokasvit
français: Alismatacées
hrvatski: Žabočunovke
hornjoserbsce: Žabnikowe rostliny
magyar: Hídőrfélék
հայերեն: Հովվափողազգիներ
日本語: オモダカ科
қазақша: Кербезгүлдер тұқымдасы
한국어: 택사과
kurdî: Famîleya beqewaran
lietuvių: Dumblialaiškiniai
മലയാളം: അലിസ്മറ്റേസീ
Nederlands: Waterweegbreefamilie
norsk: Vassgrofamilien
polski: Żabieńcowate
română: Alismatacee
русский: Частуховые
slovenčina: žabníkovité
српски / srpski: водене боквице
svenska: Svaltingväxter
ไทย: วงศ์ขาเขียด
українська: Частухові
Tiếng Việt: Họ Trạch tả
中文(简体): 泽泻科
中文(繁體): 澤瀉科

The water-plantains (Alismataceae) are a family of flowering plants, comprising 19 genera (17 extant & 02 fossils) and between 85 and 95 species. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution, with the greatest number of species in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Most of the species are herbaceous aquatic plants growing in marshes and ponds.

Description

Most Alismataceae are robust perennials, but some may be annual or perennial, depending on water conditions — they are normally perennial in permanent waters, annual in more seasonal conditions but there are exceptions. The stems are corm-like or stoloniferous. Juvenile and submerse leaves are often linear, whilst more mature and emerse leaves can be linear to ovate or even sagittate. Most have a distinct petiole, with a sheathed base.

The inflorescence is usually compound with whorls of branches, though some are umbel-like, and others have solitary flowers. The flowers are regular, bisexual or unisexual. There are three sepals which usually persist in the fruit. Three petals, usually conspicuous, white, pink, purple, occasionally with yellow or purple spots. The petals rarely last more than one day. In Burnatia and Wiesneria the petals are minute and even occasionally absent in female flowers. Stamens are 3, 6, 9 or numerous. The ovary is superior, comprising 3 - numerous free carpels in one whorl or in a clustered head. Each carpel contains 1 (-2) anatropous ovules.

Fruit is a head of nutlets (except in Damasonium). The seeds have no endosperm and a curved or folded embryo.
Classification

Under the APG III system, the Alismataceae includes three genera formerly members of the Limnocharitaceae. Altogether, there are 17 extant genera and two fossil genera assigned to the Alismataceae:[2][3][4]

Albidella Pichon
Alisma - water-plantain L.
Alismaticarpum † Collinson
Astonia S.W.L.Jacobs
Baldellia - lesser water-plantain Parl.
Burnatia Micheli
Butomopsis Kunth
Caldesia Parl.
Damasonium - starfruit, thrumwort Mill.
Echinodorus - burhead, Amazon sword plant Rich. ex Engelm.

Helanthium (Benth. & Hook. f.) Engelm. ex J.G. Sm.
Hydrocleys Rich.
Limnocharis Bonpl.
Limnophyton Miq.
Luronium - floating water-plantain Raf.
Ranalisma Stapf
Sagisma † Nikitin
Sagittaria - arrowhead, duck potato, katniss, Omodaka (沢瀉 in Japanese), swamp potato, tule potato, wapato, wapatoo L.
Wiesneria Micheli

Cultivation and uses
Echinodorus isthmicus

Several species, notably in the genus Sagittaria, have edible rhizomes, grown for both human food and animal fodder in southern and eastern Asia. They were eaten as food by the indigenous peoples of North America. Most have value as food for wildlife. Some are grown as ornamental plants in bog gardens, ponds and aquariums. The leaves and flower buds of Limnocharis flava are eaten in Southeast Asia as "poor people's vegetable".[5]
References

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 105–121, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x, archived from the original on 2017-05-25, retrieved 2010-12-10
Alismataceae in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants. Archived 2007-01-03 at the Wayback Machine
Haggard, Kristina K.; Tiffney, Bruce H. (1997). "The Flora of the Early Miocene Brandon Lignite, Vermont, USA. VIII. Caldesia (Alismataceae)". American Journal of Botany. Botanical Society of America. 84 (2): 239–252. doi:10.2307/2446086. JSTOR 2446086.
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Sky Meadows Nature Guide; accessed 2017-07-05

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