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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Alismatales

Familia: Alismataceae
Genus: Sagittaria
Overview of species (39)

S. aginashi – S. ambigua – S. australis – S. brevirostra – S. chapmanii – S. cristata – S. cuneata – S. demersa – S. engelmanniana – S. fasciculata – S. filiformis – S. graminea – S. guayanensis – S. intermedia – S. isoetiformis – S. kurziana – S. lancifolia – S. latifolia – S. lichuanensis – S. longiloba – S. macrocarpa – S. macrophylla – S. montevidensis – S. natans – S. papillosa – S. planitiana – S. platyphylla – S. potamogetifolia – S. pygmaea – S. rhombifolia – S. rigida – S. sagittifolia – S. sanfordii – S. secundifolia – S. sprucei – S. subulata – S. tengtsungensis – S. teres – S. trifolia
Nothospecies (1)

S. × lunata

Source(s) of checklist:

Hassler, M. 2020. Sagittaria. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Jul. 26. Reference page.

Name

Sagittaria L., Sp. Pl. 2: 993. 1753.

Type species: Sagittaria sagittifolia L., vide Small (1909).

Synonyms

Homotypic
Sagitta Guett., Hist. Acad. Roy. Sci. Mém. Math. Phys. (Paris, 4to) 1750: 358. 1754, nom. superfl.
Heterotypic
Diphorea Raf., Neogenyton 3. 1825.
Drepachenia Raf., Neogenyton 3. 1825.
Hydrolirion H.Lév., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 11: 67. 1912.
Lophiocarpus (Kunth) Miq., Ill. Fl. Archip. Ind. 50. 1870, nom. illeg.
Lophotocarpus T.Durand, Index Gen. Phan. x. 1888.
Michelia T.Durand, Index Gen. Phan. 504. 1888, nom. inval.


Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Europe
Northern Europe
Denmark, Finland, Great Britain, Ireland, Norway, Sweden.
Middle Europe
Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland.
Southwestern Europe
France, Portugal, Sardegna, Spain.
Southeastern Europe
Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Romania, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia.
Eastern Europe
Belarus, Baltic States, Central European Russia, East European Russia, North European Russia, South European Russia, Northwest European Russia, Ukraine.
Africa
West Tropical Africa
Burkina, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Nigeria, Niger, Senegal.
West-Central Tropical Africa
Cameroon.
Northeast Tropical Africa
Chad, Sudan.
Western Indian Ocean
Madagascar.
Asia-Temperate
Siberia
Altay, Buryatiya, Chita, Irkutsk Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, West Siberia, Yakutiya.
Russian Far East
Amur, Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Magadan, Primorye, Sakhalin.
Middle Asia
Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan.
Caucasus
North Caucasus, Transcaucasus.
Western Asia
Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Turkey.
China
China South-Central, Hainan, Inner Mongolia, Manchuria, China North-Central, China Southeast, Tibet, Xinjiang.
Mongolia
Mongolia.
Eastern Asia
Japan, Korea, Nansei-shoto, Taiwan.
Asia-Tropical
Indian Subcontinent
Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, India, Nepal, Pakistan, West Himalaya.
Indo-China
Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Nicobar Islands, Thailand, Vietnam, Jawa, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatera.
Northern America
Subarctic America
Alaska, Northwest Territories, Yukon.
Western Canada
Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan.
Eastern Canada
Labrador, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isle, Québec.
Northwestern U.S.A.
Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming.
North-Central U.S.A.
Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Nebraska, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin.
Northeastern U.S.A.
Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Islands, Vermont, West Virginia.
Southwestern U.S.A.
Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah.
South-Central U.S.A.
New Mexico, Texas.
Southeastern U.S.A.
Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, District of Columbia.
Mexico
Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Mexico Southeast.
Southern America
Central America
Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama.
Caribbean
Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Islands.
Northern South America
French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela.
Western South America
Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru.
Brazil
Brazil West-Central, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil North, Brazil South.
Southern South America
Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Chile Central, Chile South, Paraguay, Uruguay.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

References

Govaerts, R. et al. 2009. Sagittaria in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2009 Oct 23. Reference page.
Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 993.
Rafinesque-Schmaltz, C.S. (1825) Neogenyt. 3.
Small, J.K. (1909) N. Amer. Fl. 17: 51. 30.

Links

Hassler, M. 2018. Sagittaria. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Jul. 15. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Sagittaria. Published online. Accessed: Jul. 15 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Sagittaria in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Jul. 15.
Tropicos.org 2018. Sagittaria. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Jul. 15.
Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2019. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset. Taxon: Sagittaria. .

Vernacular names
العربية: سهمية
беларуская: Стрэлкаліст
čeština: šípatka
dansk: Pilblad
Deutsch: Pfeilkraut
English: Arrowhead, Duck potato, Wapato
Esperanto: Sagitario
eesti: Kõõlusleht
suomi: Keiholehdet
français: Sagittaire
עברית: חצצון
hornjoserbsce: Šipica
Ido: Sagitario
日本語: オモダカ属
ქართული: ისარა
қазақша: Жебежапырақ
lietuvių: Papliauška
Nederlands: pijlkruid
polski: Strzałka
русский: Стрелолист
slovenčina: šípovka
svenska: Pilbladssläktet
Türkçe: Suoku
українська: Стрілиця
Tiếng Việt: Chi Từ cô
中文: 慈姑属

Sagittaria is a genus of about 30[3] species of aquatic plants whose members go by a variety of common names, including arrowhead, duck potato, katniss, Omodaka (沢瀉 in Japanese), swamp potato, tule potato, and wapato (or wapatoo). Most are native to South, Central, and North America, but there are also some from Europe, Africa, and Asia.[3][2]

Description

Sagittaria plant stock (the perennial rhizome) is a horizontal creeper (stoloniferous) and obliquely obovate, the margins winged, with apical or ventral beak; in other words, they are a small, dry, one-seeded fruit that do not open to release the seed, set on a slant, narrower at the base, with winged edges, and having a "beaked" aperture (one side longer than the other) for sprouting, set above or below the fruit body.

One of the names for this plant is derived from the edible underwater tuber that the plant produces. In late fall or early spring, disturbing the aquatic mud in which the plant grows will cause its small tubers to float to the surface where they can be harvested and then boiled.

Sagittaria sagittifolia flowers

Uses

Many species have edible roots, prized for millennia as a reliable source of starch and carbohydrates, even during the winter. Some are edible raw, though are less bitter when cooked.[4] They can be harvested by hand or by treading with one's feet in the mud. They are easy to propagate by replanting the roots.
Species
Wapato bulb
Crisps (chips) made from tuber

Accepted species:[2][5][6]

Sagittaria aginashii Makino – Japan, Korea, Primorye
Sagittaria ambigua J.G.Sm. – Missouri Arrowhead – from Oklahoma to Indiana
Sagittaria australis (J.G.Sm.) Small – Appalachian Arrowhead – southeastern US from Louisiana to Florida and as far north as Iowa and New Jersey
Sagittaria brevirostra Mack. & Bush – Shortbeak Arrowhead – central US (Great Plains, Mississippi and Ohio Valleys, Great Lakes); also Virginia and Saskatchewan; naturalized in California
Sagittaria chapmanii (J.G.Sm.) C.Mohr – from Texas to the Carolinas
Sagittaria cristata Engelm – Crested arrowhead – Great Lakes region
Sagittaria cuneata E.P.Sheld. – Wapato, Northern Arrowhead, Swamp Potato – most of Canada including Yukon and Northwest Territories; Alaska; western and northeastern US
Sagittaria demersa J.G.Sm. – Chihuahuan arrowhead – New Mexico, northeastern Mexico
Sagittaria engelmanniana J.G.Sm. – Engelmann's arrowhead – eastern US from Mississippi to Vermont
Sagittaria fasciculata E.O.Beal – Bunched Arrowhead – North and South Carolina
Sagittaria filiformis J.G.Sm. – Threadleaf Arrowhead – eastern US from Alabama to Maine
Sagittaria graminea Michx. – Grassy Arrowhead, Grass-leaved Arrowhead – Cuba; much of eastern and central US; eastern Canada; naturalized in Washington State and in Vietnam
Sagittaria guayanensis Kunth – Guyanese Arrowhead – widespread across Latin America, the West Indies, China, India, Southeast Asia; introduced into Louisiana
Sagittaria intermedia Micheli in A.L.P.P.de Candolle & A.C.P.de Candolle – Greater Antilles, Colombia, southern Mexico
Sagittaria isoetiformis J.G.Sm. – Quillwort Arrowhead – Cuba, from Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Carolinas
Sagittaria kurziana Glück – Springtape or Strap-leaf Sagittaria – Florida; naturalized in Mariana Islands
Sagittaria lancifolia L. – Bulltongue Arrowhead – southeastern US from Texas to Delaware; West Indies; Latin America from southern Mexico to Brazil
Sagittaria latifolia Willd. – Duck-potato, Broad-leaved Arrowhead, Wapato – widespread across most of North America, the West Indies and northern South America; naturalized in Hawaii, the western Himalayas and parts of Europe
Sagittaria lichuanensis J.K.Chen, X.Z.Sun & H.Q.Wang – southern China
Sagittaria longiloba Engelm. ex J.G. Sm. – Longbarb Arrowhead – southern Great Plains, Arizona, New Mexico, California, Mexico, Nicaragua, Venezuela
Sagittaria × lunata C.D.Preston & Uotila – Sweden, Finland, northern Russia (S. natans × S. sagittifolia)
Sagittaria macrocarpa J.G.Sm. – Large-fruited Arrowhead – North and South Carolina
Sagittaria macrophylla Zucc. – Papa de agua – Mexico
Sagittaria montevidensis Cham. & Schltdl. – California Arrowhead – widespread across much of US, Mexico and South America
Sagittaria natans Pall. – widespread across northern Europe and Asia from Sweden to Kamchatka; Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Japan, Korea
Sagittaria papillosa Buchenau – Nipplebract Arrowhead – Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Oklahoma
Sagittaria planitiana G.Agostini – Brazil, Venezuela
Sagittaria platyphylla (Engelm.) J.G.Sm. – Delta Arrowhead, Delta Duck-potato – south-central US with scattered populations in southeast, the Ohio Valley and Washington State; also Mexico and Panama; naturalized in South Australia, Italy, Java, Caucasus
Sagittaria potamogetifolia Merr. – southern China
Sagittaria pygmaea Miq. – Pygmy arrowhead – China, Japan, Korea, Himalayas, Thailand, Vietnam
Sagittaria rhombifolia Cham. – Costa Rica; widespread across much of South America
Sagittaria rigida Pursh. – Canadian Arrowhead – Canada from Quebec to Saskatchewan; common in northeastern and north-central US from Arkansas and Nebraska east to Virginia and New England; scattered populations in California, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington State; naturalised in Great Britain
Sagittaria sagittifolia L. – Arrowhead – widespread across most of Europe; Siberia, Caucasus, Turkey
Sagittaria sanfordii Greene – Valley Arrowhead – endemic to California
Sagittaria secundifolia Kral – Little River Arrowhead – Georgia and Alabama
Sagittaria sprucei Micheli in A.L.P.P.de Candolle & A.C.P.de Candolle – Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, northern Brazil
Sagittaria subulata L. Buchenau – Narrow-leaved Arrowhead – eastern US from Louisiana to Massachusetts; naturalized in Great Britain, Azores and Java
Sagittaria tengtsungensis H.Li – Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, Yunnan
Sagittaria teres S.Watson – Slender Arrowhead – northeastern US
Sagittaria trifolia L. – Threeleaf Arrowhead – widespread across much of Asia including Siberia, China, Japan, India, Iran, Indonesia, Philippines, etc.; also Ukraine and European Russia; naturalized in Fiji and Polynesia

Formerly placed here

Echinodorus palaefolius (Nees & Mart.) J.F.Macbr. (as S. palaefolia Nees & Mart.)
Limnophyton obtusifolium (L.) Miq. (as S. obtusifolia L.)
Wiesneria triandra (Dalzell) Micheli (as S. triandra Dalzell)[5]

References

Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, Germany
"World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew". apps.kew.org. Retrieved 2017-01-30.
3. Sagittaria Linnaeus, Flora of North America
Angier, Bradford (1974). Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books. p. 26. ISBN 0-8117-0616-8. OCLC 799792.
"Species Records of Sagittaria". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-07-13.

"Sagittaria". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 13 July 2010.

Rataj, K., Annot. Zool. Bot. (Bratislava) 76:1–31 (1972); 78:1–61 (1972)
Staff of the L. H. Bailey Hortorium, Hortus Third, pg. 993

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