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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales

Familia: Bromeliaceae
Subfamilia: Tillandsioideae
Tribus: Catopsideae – Glomeropitcairnieae – Tillandsieae – Vrieseeae

Genera: AlcantareaBarfussiaCatopsisCipuropsisGlomeropitcairniaGregbrowniaGoudaeaGuzmaniaJagrantiaLemeltoniaLutheriaPseudalcantareaStigmatodonTillandsiaVrieseaWallisiaWerauhiaZizkaea


Tillandsioideae Burnett, 1835.
Type genus: Tillandsia L.


Burnett, G.T. 1835. Outlines of Botany, including a general history of the vegetable kingdom. Vol. 1–2, 1190 pp., London: John Churchill. Reference page. : 442.
Barfuss, M. H. J., Samuel, R., Till, W. & Stuessy, T.F. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships in subfamily Tillandsioideae (Bromeliaceae) based on DNA sequence data from seven plastid regions. American Journal of Botany, 92(2): 337–351: DOI: 10.3732/ajb.92.2.337 PDF Reference page.
Barfuss, M.H.J., Till, W., Leme, E.M.C., Pinzón, J.P., Manzanares, J.M., Halbritter, H., Samuel, M.R. & Brown, G.K. 2016. Taxonomic revision of Bromeliaceae subfam. Tillandsioideae based on a multi-locus DNA sequence phylogeny and morphology. Phytotaxa 279(1): 1–97. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.279.1.1 Reference page.
Gomes-da-Silva, J. & Costa, A.F. 2013. An Updated Overview of Taxonomy and Phylogenetic History of Tillandsioideae Genera (Bromeliaceae: Poales). Global Journal of Botanical Science 1: 1–8. PDF from ResarchGate Reference page.
Gomes‐da‐Silva, J. & Souza‐Chies, T.T. 2018. What actually is Vriesea? A total evidence approach in a polyphyletic genus of Tillandsioideae (Bromeliaceae, Poales). Cladistics 34(2): 181–199. DOI: 10.1111/cla.12200 PDF from ResearchGate Reference page.
Leme, E.M.C., Halbritter, H. & Barfuss, M.H.J. 2017. Waltillia, a new monotypic genus in Tillandsioideae (Bromeliaceae) arises from a rediscovered, allegedly extinct species from Brazil. Phytotaxa 299(1): 1–35. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.299.1.1 Reference page.


Luther, H.E. 2014. An Alphabetical List of Bromeliad Binomials. The Bromeliad Society International, The Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, Sarasota, Florida, USA. Veröffentlicht durch. PDF Ver. 14 Please note that this source does not contain publication data or synonymy and therefore it is not a technical nomenclatural guide. Reference page.
Butcher, D. Key to the genera of Bromeliaceae[1]

Tillandsioideae is a subfamily of plants in the bromeliad family Bromeliaceae. This subfamily contains the greatest number of species (1,277). Most are epiphytic or lithophytic, growing in trees or on rocks where they absorb water and nutrients from the air. Spanish moss of the Tillandsia genus is a well-known variety. Bromeliads in the genera Guzmania and Vriesea are the more commonly cultivated members of this subfamily.


Nearly all bromeliads have specialized cell groups called trichomes which form scales on the foliage. The trichomes occurring on Tillandsioideae may cover the plants so completely that they appear grey or white, like Spanish moss. In addition to absorbing nutrients, the trichomes may serve to insulate the plant from freezing weather.

Plants in this group have smooth or entire leaf margins, unusual color and markings, with many producing fragrant flowers. All their leaves are spineless (unarmed) and their fruit is a dry capsule containing winged seeds which are usually dispersed by breezes. Feathery seed plumes help them to adhere to a suitable epiphytic surface for germination. This subfamily is probably the most derived with special adaptations for survival in very dry conditions, with many described as xerophytes.

The 9 genera are:
Image Genus Number of living species 2198 rbgs11jan.jpg Alcantarea 23 species
CatopsisBerteroniana AtSierraDeLema4836.jpg Catopsis Griseb. 18 species
Glomeropitcairnia penduliflora01.jpg Glomeropitcairnia 2 species
Bromeliaceae03.jpg Guzmania Ruiz & Pav. 207 species
Mezobromelia capituligera (TS) 2-02968.jpg Mezobromelia 9 Species
Racinaea (or Tillandsia) fraseri (14298724244).jpg Racinaea 61 species
Tillandsia tenuifolia 1.jpg Tillandsia L. 609 species
Flaming Sword (Vriesea spp.) 1.jpg Vriesea Lindl. 261 species
Vriesea williamsii 4.jpg Werauhia J.R.Grant 87 species

BSI - Bromeliad Info - Taxonomy
Black, Robert J.; Bijan Dehgan. "Bromeliads". Electronic Data Information System. University of Florida IFAS Extension.
"Superorder Commelinanae". Texas A&M University Bioinformatics Working Group. 1999-04-03.
Luther, H. E. (2008) An Alphabetical List of Bromeliad Binomials, Eleventh Edition The Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, Sarasota, Florida, USA. Published by The Bromeliad Society International.

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