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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Acanthaceae
Subfamilia: Acanthoideae
Tribus: Ruellieae
Subtribus: Trichantherinae
Genus: Trichanthera
Species: T. corymbosa – T. gigantea
Name

Trichanthera Kunth, 1818

Type species: Ruellia gigantea Bonpl.

References

Kunth, C.S., Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (folio ed.) 2: 197. 1818.

Links

Hassler, M. 2018. Trichanthera. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Jun. 25. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Trichanthera. Published online. Accessed: Jun. 25 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Trichanthera in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Jun. 25.
Tropicos.org 2018. Trichanthera. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Jun. 25.
Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2019. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset. Taxon: Trichanthera. .

Trichanthera is a monotypic genus[1] of flowering plants in the acanthus family containing the single species Trichanthera gigantea, which is known by many common names, including madre de agua, suiban, cenicero, tuno, naranjillo, and palo de agua. It is native to Central America and northern South America.[2][3] It has also been introduced to other tropical regions such as Vietnam, Cambodia, and the Philippines.[4]

This plant is a shrub or tree growing up to 5 meters tall, though a 15-meter specimen was reported once. It often produces aerial roots. The oval or oblong leaves are up to 26 centimeters long by 14 wide and are borne on short petioles.[4] The flower is maroon with a yellow throat. It is bell-shaped and the throat measures up to 2.5 centimeters long. The plant blooms in the afternoon and the flowers fall away during the night.[2] The flowers are pollinated by bats.[1] The bat Glossophaga soricina has been seen at the flowers of this species.[4]
Leaves and detached flowers.

This plant is cultivated as an animal fodder and fed to ducks,[5] pigs,[5][6] and rabbits.[7] Its leaves are relatively rich in protein.[8] It has veterinary uses in Colombia, where it has been used to treat horse colic and retained placenta in cows. This plant also has many uses for humans. It has uses in human medicine, including as a supplement to increase lactation in nursing mothers. It is used as a living fence and a shade tree.[4]
References

Vogel, S., et al. (2004). Harpochilus neesianus and other novel cases of chiropterophily in neotropical Acanthaceae. Taxon 53(1) 55-60.
McDade, L. A. (1983). Pollination intensity and seed set in Trichanthera gigantea (Acanthaceae). Biotropica 15(2) 122-24.
Trichanthera gigantea. tropicalforages.info.
Rosales, M. (1997). Trichanthera gigantea (Humboldt & Bonpland.) Nees: A review. Livestock Research for Rural Development 9 4.
Nhan, N. T. H. and N. V. Hon. (1999). Supplementing rice by-products with foliage of Trichanthera gigantea in diets of growing and lactating pigs and fattening ducks. Archived 2007-08-11 at the Wayback Machine Livestock Research for Rural Development 11 3.
Jaya, A. F., et al. (2008). Utilization of madre de agua (Trichanthera gigantea var. guianensis) leaf meal as feed for growing-finishing pigs. Philippine J Vet Anim Sci
Luyen, L. T., et al (2003). Growing Mulberry and Trichanthera gigantea in association with Flemingia macrophylla on sloping land and using the foliages as feeds for rabbits. In: Proceedings of Final National Seminar-Workshop on Sustainable Livestock Production on Local Feed Resources (Editors: Reg Preston and Brian Ogle). HUAF-SAREC, Hue City, 25 – 28 March 2003
Heuzé V., Tran G., Boudon A., Bastianelli D., 2017. Nacedero (Trichanthera gigantea). Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/7270 Last updated on June 26, 2017, 15:09

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