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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Ordines: Blattodea - Coleoptera - Dermaptera - Diptera - Embiidina - Ephemeroptera - Hemiptera - Hymenoptera - Isoptera - Lepidoptera - MantodeaMecoptera - Megaloptera - Neuroptera - Odonata - Orthoptera - Phasmatodea - Phthiraptera - Plecoptera - Psocoptera - Raphidioptera - Siphonaptera - Strepsiptera - Thysanoptera - Trichoptera - Zoraptera – †Coxoplectoptera – †Skleroptera – ..

Genera incertae sedis: †Strudiella

Pterygota Brauer, 1885

Brauer, F. 1885. Systematisch-zoologische Studien. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe 91: 237-413. Reference page.
Grimaldi, D.; Engel, M.S. 2005: Evolution of the insects. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA. limited preview on Google books
Koçak, A.Ö.; M.Kemal 2008: Report on the “Entomofauna of Old World” 1- Index of the recorded species of the Pterygot Insects of Old World (Turkey excluded) Cesa News 38: 2–54, 1 fig. PDF
Koçak, A.Ö.; M.Kemal 2009: Report on the “Entomofauna of Old World” 2- Index of the recorded species of the Pterygot Insects in the Continent Africa Cesa News 44: 1–57, 7 figs. PDF
Koçak, A.Ö.; M.Kemal 2010: Results of the Entomofauna of the World based upon info-system of the Cesa. Cent. ent. Stud., Priamus Suppl. 18: 1-3186, 2 figs, 1 map PDF
Prokop, J.; Nel, A. (2011): New middle Permian palaeopteran insects from Lodève basin in southern France (Ephemeroptera, Diaphanopterodea, Megasecoptera). ZooKeys 130: 41–55. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.130.1311 Open access.
Staniczek, A.H.; Bechly, G.; Godunko, R.J. 2011: Coxoplectoptera, a new fossil order of Palaeoptera (Arthropoda: Insecta), with comments on the phylogeny of the stem group of mayflies (Ephemeroptera). Insect systematics & evolution, 42 (2): 101–138. DOI: 10.1163/187631211X578406
Toms, R.B. 2007: Rooting the phylogenetic tree for winged insects: independent adaptations to terrestrial life. African invertebrates, 48 (1): 203–211. PDF
Wheeler, W.C., M. Whiting, Q.D. Wheeler, and J.M. Carpenter. 2001: The phylogeny of the extant hexapod orders. Cladistics, 17: 113–169.
Wootton, R.J. 1992: Functional morphology of insect wings. Annual Review of Entomology, 37: 113–140.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Крылатыя насякомыя
български: Крилати
čeština: Křídlatí
Deutsch: Fluginsekten
English: Winged insects
suomi: Siipikantaiset
français: Ptérygote
hrvatski: Krilaši
magyar: Szárnyas rovarok, elsődlegesen szárnyas rovarok
日本語: 有翅昆虫亜綱 (ゆうしこんちゅうあこう)
lietuvių: Sparnuotieji
latviešu: Spārneņi
norsk bokmål: Vingede insekter
polski: Owady uskrzydlone
русский: Крылатые насекомые
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Krilaši
slovenščina: Krilate žuželke
svenska: Bevingade insekter
Türkçe: Kanatlı böcekler
中文: 有翅亞綱

The Pterygota (Ancient Greek πτερυγωτός (pterugōtós, “winged”)) are a subclass of insects that includes the winged insects. It also includes insect orders that are secondarily wingless (that is, insect groups whose ancestors once had wings but that have lost them as a result of subsequent evolution).[1]

The pterygotan group comprises almost all insects. The insect orders not included are the Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) and the Zygentoma (silverfishes and firebrats), two primitively wingless insect orders. Also not included are the three orders no longer considered to be insects: Protura, Collembola, and Diplura.


Traditionally, this group was divided into the infraclasses Paleoptera and Neoptera.[2] The former are nowadays strongly suspected of being paraphyletic, and better treatments (such as dividing or dissolving the group) are presently being discussed. In addition, it is not clear how exactly the neopterans are related among each other. The Exopterygota might be a similar assemblage of rather ancient hemimetabolous insects among the Neoptera like the Palaeoptera are among insects as a whole. The holometabolous Endopterygota seem to be very close relatives, indeed, but nonetheless appear to contain several clades of related orders, the status of which is not agreed upon.

The following scheme uses finer divisions than the one above, which is not well-suited to correctly accommodating the fossil groups.
Infraclass Palaeoptera

(probably paraphyletic)

Ephemeroptera (mayflies)
Palaeodictyoptera †(extinct)
Megasecoptera †(extinct)
Archodonata †(extinct)
Diaphanopterodea †(extinct)
Protodonata or Meganisoptera †(extinct; sometimes included in Odonata)
Protanisoptera †(extinct; sometimes included in Odonata)
Triadophlebioptera †(extinct; sometimes included in Odonata)
Protozygoptera or Archizygoptera †(extinct; sometimes included in Odonata)
Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies)

Infraclass Neoptera

Superorder Exopterygota

Caloneurodea †(extinct)
Titanoptera †(extinct)
Protorthoptera †(extinct)
Plecoptera (stoneflies)
Embioptera (webspinners)
Zoraptera (angel insects)
Dermaptera (earwigs)
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc.)
Phasmatodea (stick insects – tentatively placed here)
Notoptera (gladiators and ice-crawlers – tentatively placed here)
Proposed superorder Dictyoptera
Blattodea (cockroaches and termites)
Mantodea (mantids)
Alienoptera †(extinct)
Proposed superorder Paraneoptera
Psocoptera (booklice, barklice)
Thysanoptera (thrips)
Phthiraptera (lice)
Hemiptera (true bugs)

Superorder Endopterygota

Hymenoptera (ants, bees, etc.)
Coleoptera (beetles)
Strepsiptera (twisted-winged parasites)
Raphidioptera (snakeflies)
Megaloptera (alderflies, etc.)
Neuroptera (net-veined insects)
Proposed superorder Mecopteroidea/Antliophora
Mecoptera (scorpionflies, etc.)
Siphonaptera (fleas)
Diptera (true flies)
Protodiptera †(extinct)
Proposed superorder Amphiesmenoptera
Trichoptera (caddisflies)
Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths)

Neoptera orders incertae sedis

Glosselytrodea †(extinct)
Miomoptera †(extinct)


Vincent H. Resh; Ring T. Cardé (4 April 2003). Encyclopedia of Insects. Academic Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-08-054605-6.
Maddison, David (1 January 2002). "Pterygota Winged Insects". Tree of Life.

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