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Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Amphibia
Subclassis: Lissamphibia
Ordo: Anura
Subordo: Neobatrachia
Familia: Bufonidae
Genus: Anaxyrus
Species: A. americanus - A. baxteri - A. boreas - A. californicus - A. canorus - A. cognatus - A. compactilis - A. debilis - A. exsul - A. fowleri - A. hemiophrys - A. houstonensis - A. kelloggi - A. mexicanus - A. microscaphus - A. nelsoni - A. punctatus - A. quercicus - A. retiformis - A. speciosus - A. terrestris - A. woodhousii


Anaxyrus Tschudi, 1845

Type species: Anaxyrus melancholicus Tschudi, 1845


The recognition of Anaxyrus as a genus distinct from Bufo is highly controversial, and has not been accepted by many herpetologists working with this group. For a complete phylogeny of the species in this group and their relationships as a subgroup within Bufo, see Pauly et al. (2004).


* Incilius Cope, 1863
* Dromoplectrus Camerano, 1879
* Bufo (Anaxyrus) (subgenus)


* Tschudi, 1845, Arch. Naturgesch., 11: 170.
* Pauly, G. B., D. M. Hillis, and D. C, Cannatella. (2004) The history of a Nearctic colonization: Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Nearctic toads (Bufo). Evolution 58: 2517–2535.

Vernacular names
English: True Toads

Anaxyrus is a genus of true toads in the family Bufonidae. The genus is endemic to North America and Central America. Some authors consider Anaxyrus to be a subgenus within Bufo.[1]


Binomial name Described by, year Common name
Anaxyrus americanusBufo americanus Holbrook, 1836 American toad
Anaxyrus baxteriBufo baxteri Porter, 1968 Wyoming toad
Anaxyrus boreasBufo boreas Baird & Girard, 1852 western toad
Anaxyrus californicusBufo californicus Camp, 1915 arroyo toad
Anaxyrus canorusBufo canorus Camp, 1916 Yosemite toad
Anaxyrus cognatusBufo cognatus Say, 1823 Great Plains toad
Anaxyrus compactilisBufo compactilis Wiegmann, 1833 plateau toad, Texas toad
Anaxyrus debilisBufo debilis Girard, 1854 North American green toad
Anaxyrus exsulBufo exsul G. Myers, 1942 black toad
Anaxyrus fowleriBufo fowleri Hinckley, 1882 Fowler's toad
Anaxyrus hemiophrysBufo hemiophrys Cope, 1886 Canadian toad
Anaxyrus houstonensisBufo houstonensis Sanders, 1953 Houston toad
Anaxyrus kelloggiBufo kelloggi Taylor, 1938 little Mexican toad
Anaxyrus mexicanusBufo mexicanus Brocchi, 1879 southwestern toad
Anaxyrus microscaphusBufo microscaphus Cope, 1867 Arizona toad
Anaxyrus monfontanusBufo monfontanus Gordon, Simandle, Sandmeier & Tracy, 2020[1] Hot Creek toad
Anaxyrus nelsoniBufo nelsoni Stejneger, 1893 Amargosa toad
Anaxyrus nevadensisBufo nevadensis Gordon, Simandle, Sandmeier & Tracy, 2020[1] Railroad Valley toad
Anaxyrus punctatusBufo punctatus Baird & Girard, 1852 red-spotted toad, Baird's spotted toad
Anaxyrus quercicusBufo quercicus Holbrook, 1840 oak toad
Anaxyrus retiformisBufo retiformis Sanders and H.M. Smith, 1951 Sonoran green toad
Anaxyrus speciosusBufo speciosus Girard, 1854 Texas toad
Anaxyrus terrestrisBufo terrestris Bonnaterre, 1789 southern toad
Anaxyrus williamsi ↔ Bufo williamsi Gordon, Simandle, and Tracy, 2017 Dixie Valley toad
Anaxyrus woodhousiiBufo woodhousii Girard, 1854 Woodhouse's toad


Gordon, Michelle R.; Simandle, Eric T.; Sandmeier, Franziska C.; Tracy, C. Richard (2020). "Two New Cryptic Endemic Toads of Bufo Discovered in Central Nevada, Western United States (Amphibia: Bufonidae: Bufo [Anaxyrus])". Copeia. 108 (1): 166–183. doi:10.1643/CH-18-086. ISSN 0045-8511.

External links

Frost DR, Grant T, Faivovich JN, Bain RH, Haas A, Haddad CLFB, De Sá RO, Channing A, Wilkinson M, Donnellan SC, Raxworthy CJ, Campbell JA, Blotto BL, Moler P, Drewes RC, Nussbaum RA, Lynch JD, Green DM, Wheeler WC (2006). "The Amphibian Tree of Life". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 297: 1–291. doi:10.1206/0003-0090(2006)297[0001:TATOL]2.0.CO;2. hdl:2246/5781.
Pauly GB, Hillis DM, Cannatella DC (November 2004). "The history of a Nearctic colonization: Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Nearctic toads (Bufo)". Evolution. 58 (11): 2517–2535. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2004.tb00881.x. PMID 15612295.
Pauly, Gregory B.; Hillis, David M.; Cannatella, David C. (June 2009). "Taxonomic freedom and the role of official lists of species names". Herpetologica. 65 (2): 115–128. doi:10.1655/08-031R1.1.

Further reading

Tschudi JJ (1845). "Reptilium conspectus quae in Republica Peruana reperiuntur et pleraque observata vel collecta sunt in itinere ". Archiv für Naturgeschichte 11 (1): 150–170. (Anaxyrus, new genus, p. 170). (in Latin).

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