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Acanthis flammea

Acanthis flammea (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Fringillidae
Subfamilia: Carduelinae
Genus: Acanthis
Species: Acanthis flammea
Subspecies: A. f. flammea – A. f. rostrata

Acanthis flammea (Linnaeus, 1758)

Fringilla flammea (protonym)
Carduelis flammea
Fringilla linaria Linnaeus, 1758


Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiæ: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. i–ii, 1–824 pp DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.542: 182. Reference page.

Vernacular names
asturianu: Pardín de Baberu
башҡортса: Таҡыя турғай
беларуская: Звычайная чачотка
български: Брезова скатия
brezhoneg: Lineg penn flamm
català: Passerell golanegre
čeština: Čečetka zimní
Cymraeg: Llinos Flodiog
dansk: Gråsisken
Deutsch: Birkenzeisig
English: Common Redpoll
Esperanto: Flamkardelo
español: Pardillo sizerín
eesti: Urvalind
euskara: Txoka gorrizta
suomi: Urpiainen
føroyskt: Reyðkollur
français: Sizerin flammé
Frysk: Stienbarmke
Gaeilge: Deargéadan
Gàidhlig: Dearcan-seilich
galego: Liñaceiro paponegro
Gaelg: Kione-jiarg
עברית: תפוחית שחורת סנטר
hrvatski: Sjeverna juričica
magyar: Zsezse
íslenska: Auðnutittlingur
italiano: Organetti
日本語: ベニヒワ
қазақша: Шекілдек
kalaallisut: Orpimmiutaq
한국어: 홍방울새
kernowek: Pencough
Lëtzebuergesch: Rouden Zeiseg
Limburgs: Barmsies
lietuvių: Čimčiakas
latviešu: Ķeģis
македонски: Брезова чинка
монгол: Дөлөн цэгцүүхэй
Malti: Bagħal tal-Ġojjin
Nedersaksies: Barm
Nederlands: Barmsijs
norsk nynorsk: Gråsisik
norsk: Gråsisik
polski: Czeczotka
português: Pintarroxo-de-queixo-preto
rumantsch: Zaisch da laresch
русский: Чечётка
саха тыла: Чооруос
Scots: Rose lintie
davvisámegiella: Ummolcizáš
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sjeverna juričica
slovenčina: Stehlík čečetka
slovenščina: Brezovček
српски / srpski: Брезова јуричица
svenska: Gråsiska
Türkçe: Kuzey keten kuşu
українська: Звичайна чечітка
中文: 白腰朱顶雀

The common redpoll or mealy redpoll (Acanthis flammea) is a species of bird in the finch family. It breeds somewhat further south than the Arctic redpoll, also in habitats with thickets or shrubs.


The common redpoll was listed in 1758 by Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae under the binomial name Fringilla flammea.[2][3] The current genus name Acanthis is from the Ancient Greek akanthis, a name for a small now-unidentifiable bird, and flammea is the Latin for "flame-coloured".[4]

The common redpoll was previously placed in the genus Carduelis. Molecular phylogenetic studies showed that the Arctic and common redpolls formed a distinct lineage, so the two species were grouped together in the resurrected genus Acanthis.[5][6]

The nominate subspecies A. f. flammea, the mealy redpoll, breeds across the northern parts of North America and the Palearctic. There is also a subspecies that breeds in Iceland called the Icelandic redpoll (A. f. islandica), and one that breeds in Greenland and Baffin Island called the Greenland redpoll (A. f. rostrata). Many taxonomic authorities consider the lesser redpoll a subspecies of the common redpoll.[6][7] Together, the Icelandic and Greenland forms are sometimes known as the 'northwestern redpolls'. All the subspecies migrate south into Canada, the northern U.S., or Eurasia. These birds are remarkably resistant to cold temperatures[8] and winter movements are mainly driven by the availability of food. There are two distinct populations (one lighter, one darker) united in islandica, the relationships of which are unresolved.[9]

The common redpoll is a small brownish-grey finch with dark streaks and a bright red patch on its forehead. It has a black bib and two pale stripes on the wings. Males often have their breasts suffused with red. It is smaller, browner and more streaked than the generally similar Arctic redpoll, adults measuring between 11.5 and 14 centimetres (4.5 and 5.5 in) in length and weighing between 12 and 16 grams (0.42 and 0.56 oz). Wingspan ranges from 7.5 to 8.7 in (19-22 cm).[10] The rump is streaked and there is a broad dark brown streak across the vent. It has brown legs, dark-tipped yellowish bills and dark brown irises.[11]
Calls from a flock of birds feeding, Iowa USA
Similar species

The mealy redpoll is larger and paler than the lesser redpoll with which it often mixes, apparently without significant interbreeding, though sympatry was established too recently to draw firm conclusions.[12] The male mealy redpolls are darker than the similarly sized Arctic redpolls, but the females are almost identical.
Foraging redpoll filmed in Holland

The range of the common redpoll extends through northern Europe and Asia to northern North America, Greenland and Iceland. It is a partial migrant, moving southward in late autumn and northward again in March and April. Its typical habitat is boreal forests of pines, spruces and larches. It feeds mainly on seeds, principally birch and alder seeds in the winter.[11]

The common redpoll builds its nest low down in a tree or bush. The nest has an outer layer of thin twigs, a middle layer of root fibres, fragments of juniper bark and lichens and an inner layer of down, willow buds and reindeer hair. Three to seven speckled eggs are laid and incubated by the female. They hatch after about 11 days and the young fledge in about a further 13 days.[11]
On a tree branch in winter, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

BirdLife International (2019). "Acanthis flammea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T22725044A155292529. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22725044A155292529.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
Paynter, Raymond A. Jnr., ed. (1968). Check-list of birds of the world, Volume 14. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 251.
Linnaeus, C. (1766). Systema Naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Volume 1 (in Latin) (10th ed.). Holmiae:Laurentii Salvii. p. 182.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London, United Kingdom: Christopher Helm. pp. 29, 160. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Zuccon, Dario; Prŷs-Jones, Robert; Rasmussen, Pamela C.; Ericson, Per G.P. (2012). "The phylogenetic relationships and generic limits of finches (Fringillidae)" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 62 (2): 581–596. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.10.002. PMID 22023825.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David (eds.). "Finches, euphonias". World Bird List Version 5.3. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
BirdLife International - IUCN | Wildlife News : Some birds tougher than winter
Seutin, G.; Ratcliffe, L. M. & Boag, P. T. (1995) Mitochondrial DNA homogeneity in the phenotypically diverse redpoll finch complex (Aves: Carduelinae: Carduelis flammea - hornemanni). Evolution 49(5): 962–973. doi:10.2307/2410418 (HTML abstract and first page image)
"Common Redpoll Identification, All About Birds, Cornell Lab of Ornithology". Retrieved 2020-09-29.
"Redpoll: Carduelis flammea". NatureGate. Retrieved 2013-12-13.
Sangster, George; Knox, Alan G.; Helbig, Andreas J.; Parkin, David T. (2002). "Taxonomic recommendations for European birds". Ibis. 144 (1): 153–159. doi:10.1046/j.0019-1019.2001.00026.x.

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