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Trichoglossus haematodus

Trichoglossus haematodus, Photo: Michael Lahanas

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Superclassis: Sarcopterygii
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Euornithes
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Ornithurae
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Psittaciformes

Familia: Psittaculidae
Subfamilia: Loriinae
Genus: Trichoglossus
Species: Trichoglossus haematodus
Subspecies: T. h. deplanchii – T. h. flavicans – T. h. haematodus – T. h. massena – T. h. nesophilus – T. h. nigrogularis

Trichoglossus haematodus (Linnaeus, 1771)

Psittacus haematodus (protonym; "hæmatod.")


Mantissa Plantarum Altera, Regni Animalis appendix: 524.

Vernacular names
български: Многоцветен лори
English: Coconut Lorikeet
suomi: Sateenkaariluri
français: Loriquet à tête bleue
magyar: Szivárványlóri
日本語: ゴシキセイガイインコ
polski: Lorysa górska
русский: Многоцветный лорикей
中文: 虹彩吸蜜鸚鵡

The coconut lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus) also known as the green-naped lorikeet is a parrot in the family Psittaculidae. Seven species of lorikeets now recognised were once lumped together under Trichoglossus haematodus.[1]


In 1758, English naturalist George Edwards described this species as the red-breasted parrakeet in his work Gleanings of Natural History. He had obtained a stuffed specimen from a China warehouse in London, that had come from the East Indies. "It is a parrakeet, equal to any I have seen for beauty; and I believe hath never been described or figured until now."[2] In 1760 the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson included a description of the coconut lorikeet in his Ornithologie based on a specimen collected on the island of Ambon in Indonesia. He used the French name La perruche variée d'Amboine and the Latin name Psittaca amboinensis varia.[3] Although Brisson coined Latin names, these do not conform to the binomial system and are not recognised by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature.[4]

Acknowledging both previous authors as having written about the same species, Carl Linnaeus formally described the coconut lorikeet in 1771 as Psittacus haematod.(us).[5] He had abbreviated the name to avoid it spilling over onto the next line. The shortened form was followed for many years. The specific epithet is from the Ancient Greek haimatōdēs for "blood-red".[6] Hence the translation of its binomial name is "bloody hair-tongue".[7]

For many years, the species was broadly defined with 20 or 22 subspecies recognised, and was known as the rainbow lorikeet.[8] This name has been reapplied to eastern Australian populations, now classified as a distinct species Trichoglossus moluccanus.[9] Also recognised as distinct species are the sunset lorikeet (T. forsteni), leaf lorikeet (T. weberi), marigold lorikeet (T. capistratus), red-collared lorikeet (T. rubritorquis), and Biak lorikeet (T. rosenbergii).[8]

Six subspecies are recognised:[9]

T. h. haematodus – the nominate subspecies, is found in the southern Moluccas, west Papuan islands, and in the west and north coast of New Guinea.
T. h. massena – found in eastern New Guinea, Karkar Island, the Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu
T. h. nesophilus – found on Ninigo and Hermit Islands (Admiralty Islands)
T. h. flavicans – New Hanover and the Admiralty Islands
T. h. deplanchii, also known as Deplanche's lorikeet – is found on New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands
T. h. nigrogularis – Kai and Aru Islands, and southern New Guinea. This includes the former subspecies caeruliceps and resembles the rainbow lorikeet (T. moluccanus).[9] Molecular analysis using mitochondrial cytochrome b confirms this subspecies as more closely related to the latter taxon.[8]

"Coconut lorikeet" has been designated as the official common name for the species by the International Ornithologists' Union (IOC).[9]

The coconut lorikeet measures 25–30 cm (10–12 in) in length and weighs around 109–137 g (3.8–4.8 oz). The bill is orange-red, and the head dark blue fading to brown at the neck. It has a yellow collar and green upperparts. The breast is red with blue-black barring, and the belly is green with yellow barring. The tail is green above and barred in green and yellow below. The male's iris is bright red, while in the female it is orange-red.[10]
Distribution and habitat

Trichoglossus haematodus is found in eastern Indonesia, on Buru, Seram, Misool, Waigeo, Numfoor, Yapen and the Aru Islands, in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea on New Guinea, in the Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and New Caledonia.[11]

The species occupies a wide range of lowland and wooded hill habitats, including mangroves, rainforest, nypa forest, swamps, savanna and woodland. It also occupies human-modified areas including coconut plantations, gardens, agricultural land and disturbed forest. It is found from sea level up to as high as 2,440 m (8,010 ft); this upper altitude level varies by location.[10]
Trichoglossus haematodus - MHNT

These lorikeets have on the tip of their specialized tongue a small brush, which is actually the tongue's extended papillae. With the help of the tongue, they are able to feed on nectar and pollen from flowers.[12] They mainly feed on nectar and pollen, but they also eat other parts of the flowers, as well as seeds, fruits, berries, insects, and larvae. They usually make a huge noise during flight, emitting screeching calls (e.g. “peaow-peaow-peaow”), at regular intervals.[10]

Coconut lorikeets are monogamous birds, choosing only one partner for their whole life. They are diurnal birds living in very large bands. In the evening, they join their fellows in a dormitory tree. These birds may breed throughout most of year, depending on the region. Usually they breed in the spring, from July to December. They usually raise one brood a year, sometimes two.

Nests are usually located in holes in decaying wood, such as hollows of eucalyptus trees,[12] at a height of 25 metres (82 ft) above the ground. Females lay two matte white, round eggs and incubate them for 23–25 days. Parents feed the chicks for 7–8 weeks,[12] after which they leave the nest and after another 2–3 weeks they become completely independent.[13]


BirdLife International (2018). "Trichoglossus haematodus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22725310A132177469. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22725310A132177469.en. Retrieved 25 September 2021.
Edwards, George (1758). Gleanings of Natural History. Vol. 1. London: Printed for author at the Royal College of Physicians. pp. 45–46.
Brisson, Mathurin Jacques (1760). Ornithologie, ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés (in French and Latin). Vol. 4. Paris: Jean-Baptiste Bauche. pp. 364–66. The two stars (**) at the start of the section indicates that Brisson based his description on the examination of a specimen.
Allen, J.A. (1910). "Collation of Brisson's genera of birds with those of Linnaeus". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 28: 317–35. hdl:2246/678.
Linnaeus, Carl (1771). Mantissa Plantarum. Stockholm: Laurentii Salvii. p. 524.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Gray, Jeannie; Fraser, Ian (2013). Australian Bird Names: A Complete Guide. Collingwood, Victoria: Csiro Publishing. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-643-10471-6.
Braun, Michael P.; Reinschmidt, Matthias; Datzmann, Thomas; Waugh, David; Zamora, Rafael; Häbich, Annett; Neves, Luís; Gerlach, Helga; Arndt, Thomas; Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Sauer-Gürth, Hedwig; Wink, Michael (2017). "Influences of oceanic islands and the Pleistocene on the biogeography and evolution of two groups of Australasian parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes: Eclectus roratus, Trichoglossus haematodus complex). Rapid evolution and implications for taxonomy and conservation". European Journal of Ecology. 3 (2): 47–66. doi:10.1515/eje-2017-0014.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2019). "Parrots, cockatoos". World Bird List Version 9.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
Collar, N.; Christie, D.; Kirwan, G. M. (2019). del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Sargatal, Jordi; Christie, David A; de Juana, Eduardo (eds.). "Coconut Lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus)". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
"Trichoglossus haematodus range map". International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Retrieved 2015-01-04.
Ananda Porto, Terra da Gente Periquito-arco-íris tem língua adaptada para se alimentar de nectar(in Portuguese)
Gordon Beruldsen, Australian Birds, their Nests and Eggs, Kenmore Hills, G. Beruldsen, 2003, 424 p. (ISBN 0-646-42798-9), p. 245

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