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Solitary Sandpiper (8706283406)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Superclassis: Sarcopterygii
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Euornithes
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Ornithurae
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Ordo: Charadriiformes
Subordo: Charadrii

Familia: Scolopacidae
Genus: Tringa
Species: Tringa solitaria
Subspecies: T. s. cinnamomea – T. s. solitaria

Tringa solitaria A. Wilson, 1813

American Ornithology or, the Natural History of the Birds of the United States 7: 53, pl.LVIII fig.3.
Vernacular names
asturianu: Andarríu Solitariu
brezhoneg: Strelleg digenvez
čeština: Vodouš samotářský
Cymraeg: Pibydd unig
dansk: Amerikansk Svaleklire
Deutsch: Einsamer Wasserläufer
English: Solitary Sandpiper
Esperanto: Solema tringo
español: Andarríos solitario
eesti: Ameerika metstilder
فارسی: آبچلیک تک‌زی
suomi: Amerikanmetsäviklo
føroyskt: Mintdimmur stelkur
français: Chevalier solitaire
Gaeilge: Gobadán Aonarach
Avañe'ẽ: Mbatui ño
עברית: בצנית בודדת
Kreyòl ayisyen: Bekasin dlo dous
magyar: Remetecankó
íslenska: Svölustelkur
italiano: Piro-piro solitario
日本語: コシグロクサシギ
lietuvių: Tulikas atsiskyrėlis
Nederlands: Amerikaanse bosruiter
norsk: Eremittsnipe
polski: Brodziec ciemnorzytny
português do Brasil: Maçarico-solitário
português: Maçarico-solitário
русский: Улит-отшельник
slovenčina: Kalužiak samotársky
slovenščina: Ameriški pikasti martinec
svenska: Amerikansk skogssnäppa
Türkçe: Esmer Düdükçün
中文: 褐腰草鹬

The solitary sandpiper (Tringa solitaria) is a small shorebird. The genus name Tringa is the New Latin name given to the green sandpiper by Aldrovandus in 1599 based on Ancient Greek trungas, a thrush-sized, white-rumped, tail-bobbing wading bird mentioned by Aristotle. The specific solitaria is Latin for "solitary" from solus, "alone".[2]


This species measures 18–23 cm (7.1–9.1 in) long, with a wingspan up to 50 cm (20 in) and a body mass of 31–65 g (1.1–2.3 oz).[3][4] It is a dumpy wader with a dark green back, greyish head and breast and otherwise white underparts. It is obvious in flight, with wings dark above and below, and a dark rump and tail centre. The latter feature distinguishes it from the slightly larger and broader-winged, but otherwise very similar, green sandpiper of Europe and Asia, to which it is closely related.[5] The latter species has a brilliant white rump. In flight, the solitary sandpiper has a characteristic three-note whistle. They both have brown wings with little light dots, and a delicate but contrasting neck and chest pattern. In addition, both species nest in trees, unlike most other scolopacids.
Distribution and habitat

It breeds in woodlands across Alaska and Canada. It is a migratory bird, wintering in Central and South America, especially in the Amazon River basin, and the Caribbean. It is a very rare vagrant to western Europe, and goes there in the summer-autumn period.

The solitary sandpiper is split into two subspecies:

T. s. cinnamomea, (Brewster, 1890): breeds in Alaska & western Canada
T. s. solitaria, (Wilson, 1813): breeds from eastern British Columbia to Labrador

Hunting behaviour

The solitary sandpiper is not a gregarious species, usually seen alone during migration, although sometimes small numbers congregate in suitable feeding areas. The solitary sandpiper is very much a bird of fresh water, and is often found in sites, such as ditches, too restricted for other waders, which tend to like a clear all-round view.

The sandpiper lays a clutch of 3–5 eggs in abandoned tree nests of songbird species, such as those of thrushes. The young birds are encouraged to drop to the ground soon after hatching.[6]

Food is small invertebrates, sometimes small frogs, picked off the mud as the bird works steadily around the edges of its chosen pond.

BirdLife International (2018). "Tringa solitaria". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22693239A130186218. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22693239A130186218.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 359, 390. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Solitary sandpiper at All about birds
CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses by John B. Dunning Jr. (Editor). CRC Press (1992), ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5.
Pereira, Sérgio Luiz; Baker, Allan J. (2005). "Multiple Gene Evidence for Parallel Evolution and Retention of Ancestral Morphological States in the Shanks (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae)". The Condor. 107 (3): 514. doi:10.1650/0010-5422(2005)107[0514:MGEFPE]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0010-5422.
Federation of Alberta Naturalists. (1992) Glen P. Semenchuk (ed.). The Atlas of Breeding Birds of Alberta. Edmonton, AB:Federation of Alberta Naturalists.

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