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Bezoarziege

Capra aegagrus

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Cladus: Synapsida
Cladus: Eupelycosauria
Cladus: Sphenacodontia
Cladus: Sphenacodontoidea
OrdoTherapsida
Cladus: Theriodontia
Subordo: Cynodontia
Cladus: Mammaliaformes
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Trechnotheria
Infraclassis: Zatheria
Supercohort: Theria
Cohort: Eutheria
Cohort: Placentalia
Cladus: Boreoeutheria
Superordo: Laurasiatheria
Ordo: Artiodactyla
Subordo: Ruminantia

Familia: Bovidae
Subfamilia: Caprinae
Genus: Capra
Species: Capra aegagrus
Name

Capra aegagrus Erxleben, 1777
Original combination: Capra aegagrus
Source: Erxleben 1777: 260 BHL
Current combination authority: Opinion 2027

References

Erxleben, J. C. P. 1777: Systema regni animalis, per classes, ordines, genera, species, varietates, cum synonymia et historia animalium. Classis I, Mammalia, Weygand, Leipzig, 1 BHL
ICZN 2003. OPINION 2027 (Case 3010). Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalia): conserved. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 60(1): 81–85. BHL Reference page.
Capra aegagrus in Mammal Species of the World.
Wilson, Don E. & Reeder, DeeAnn M. (Editors) 2005. Mammal Species of the World – A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Third edition. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4.

Vernacular names
العربية: ماعز بري
azərbaycanca: Bezoar keçisi
беларуская: Безааравы казёл
български: Безоаров козел
bamanankan: Ba
বাংলা: বুনো ছাগল
brezhoneg: Gavr ouez
català: Cabra salvatge
čeština: Koza bezoárová
Deutsch: Wildziege
Ελληνικά: Αίγαγρος
English: Wild goat
español: Cabra salvaje
فارسی: بز کوهی
suomi: Besoaarivuohi
עברית: עז הבר
magyar: Vadkecske
հայերեն: Բեզոարյան այծ
italiano: Egagro
日本語: パサン
ქართული: ნიამორი
қазақша: Тауешкі
한국어: 들염소
lietuvių: Bezoarinis ožys
latviešu: Savvaļas kaza
македонски: Дива коза
မြန်မာဘာသာ: တောဆိတ်
Nederlands: Bezoargeit
norsk nynorsk: Villgeit
Diné bizaad: Tłʼízí ałchiní
polski: Koza bezoarowa
português: Cabra-selvagem
русский: Безоаровый козёл
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Divlja koza
Simple English: Wild Goat
shqip: Dhia e egër
српски / srpski: Дивља коза
svenska: Vildget
தமிழ்: காட்டு ஆடு
Türkmençe: Dagteke
Türkçe: Yaban keçisi
українська: Козел звичайний
vèneto: Càvra, Càvara
中文: 野山羊

The wild goat or common ibex (Capra aegagrus) is a wild goat species, inhabiting forests, shrublands and rocky areas ranging from Turkey and the Caucasus in the west to Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and Pakistan in the east. It has been listed as near threatened on the IUCN Red List and is threatened by destruction and degradation of habitat.[1]

It is one of the ancestors of the domestic goat (C. hircus).[2]

Taxonomy

Capra aegagrus was the scientific name proposed by Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben in 1777 for the wild goat populations of the Caucasus and Taurus Mountains.[3] Capra blythi proposed by Allan Octavian Hume in 1874 were wild goat horns from Sindh.[4]

The following wild goat subspecies are considered valid taxa:[citation needed]

Bezoar ibex C. a. aegagrus
Sindh ibex C. a. blythi

Distribution and habitat
Sindh ibex in Kirthar National Park
Wild goat kid in Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park
Wild Goat Herd, Behbahan
Wild goat herd in Behbahan

In Turkey, the wild goat occurs in the Aegean, Mediterranean, Black Sea, Southeastern and the Eastern Anatolia Regions up to 4,500 m (14,800 ft) in the Taurus and Anti-Taurus Mountains.[5]

In the Caucasus, it inhabits montane forests in the river basins of Andi Koysu and its tributaries in Dagestan, Chechnya and Georgia up to 2,700 m (8,900 ft).[6][7]

In Armenia, wild goats were recorded in the Zangezur Mountains, in Khosrov State Reserve, and in highlands of the Syunik Province during field surveys from 2006 to 2007.[8] In Azerbaijan, wild goats occur in Ordubad National Park, Daralayaz and Murovdag mountain areas in Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.[9] In Iran's Haftad Gholleh Protected Area, wild goat herds live foremost in west-facing areas with rocky substrates, water sources and steep slopes that are far from roads.[10] In Turkmenistan, wild goat populations inhabit the mountain ranges of Uly Balkan[1] and Kopet Dag.[11] In Pakistan, wild goat herds occur in Kirthar National Park.[12]
Behaviour and ecology

In Kirthar National Park, 283 wild goat groups were observed for 10 months in 1986. The group sizes ranged from two to 131 individuals but varied seasonally, with a mean ratio of two females per male.[12]

In Dagestan, male wild goats start courting females in mid December. The rutting season lasts until the third week of January. Females give birth to between one and three kids in late June to mid July.[7]

Older males drive younger males from the maternal herds. The gestation period averages 170 days. Kids are mobile almost immediately after birth. Kids are weaned after 6 months. Female goats reach sexual maturity at 1½–2½ years, males at 3½–4 years. The lifespan of a goat can be from 12 to 22 years.
Threats

Wild goat populations are threatened foremost by poaching, habitat loss due to logging, and competition with domestic livestock for food resources.[1]
See also

Feral goat
Mountain goat

References

Weinberg, P. & Ambarli, H. (2020). "Capra aegagrus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T3786A22145942.
Mannen, H.; Nagata, Y.; Tsuji, S. (2001). "Mitochondrial DNA reveal that domestic goat (Capra hircus) are genetically affected by two subspecies of bezoar (Capra aegagurus)". Biochemical Genetics. 39 (5−6): 145−154. doi:10.1023/A:1010266207735. PMID 11530852. S2CID 24146711.
Erxleben, J. C. P. (1777). "Capra aegagrus". Systema regni animalis per classes, ordines, genera, species, varietates cvm synonymia et historia animalivm. Classis I. Mammalia. Lipsiae: Weygandt. pp. 520–521.
Hume, A. C. (1874). "Note on two apparently undescribed species of Goat from Northern India and a new species of Dove from the Nicobar Islands". Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (December): 240–241.
Gundogdu, E.; Ogurlu, I. (2009). "The distribution of Wild Goat Capra aegagrus Erxleben 1877 and population characteristics in Isparta, Turkey" (PDF). Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 8 (11): 2318−2324.
Akhmedov, E. G.; Yarovenko, Y. A.; Nasrullaev, N. I.; Babaev, E. A.; Akhmedov, S. G. (2009). "Conservation of the Bezoar Goat in the Eastern Caucasus". In Zazanashvili, N.; Mallon, D. (eds.). Status and Protection of Globally Threatened Species in the Caucasus (PDF). Tbilisi: CEPF, WWF. pp. 26−31.
Weinberg, P. (2014). "On the status and biology of the wild goat in Daghestan (Russia)". Journal of Mountain Ecology. 6 (6): 31−40.
Khorozyan, I. G.; Weinberg, P. I.; Malkhasyan, A. G. (2009). "Conservation Strategy for Armenian Mouflon (Ovis [orientalis] gmelini Blyth) and Bezoar Goat (Capra aegagrus Erxleben) in Armenia". In Zazanashvili, N.; Mallon, D. (eds.). Status and Protection of Globally Threatened Species in the Caucasus (PDF). Tbilisi: CEPF, WWF. pp. 37−45.
Talibov, T. H.; Weinberg, P. I.; Mammadov, I. B.; Mammadov, E. N.; Talibov, S. T. (2009). "Conservation Strategy of the Asiatic Mouflon (Ovis [orientalis] gmelini Blyth) and the Bezoar Goat (Capra aegagrus Erxleben) in Azerbaijan". In Zazanashvili, N.; Mallon, D. (eds.). Status and Protection of Globally Threatened Species in the Caucasus (PDF). Tbilisi: CEPF, WWF. pp. 46−52.
Esfandabad, B.S.; Karami, M.; Hemami, M.R.; Riazi, B. & Sadough, M.B. (2010). "Habitat associations of wild goat in central Iran: implications for conservation" (PDF). European Journal of Wildlife Research. 56 (6): 883–894. doi:10.1007/s10344-010-0386-9. S2CID 23188666.
Korshunov, V. M. (1994). "Ecology of the Bearded Goat (Capra aegagrus Erxleben 1777) in Turkmenistan". Biogeography and ecology of Turkmenistan. Monographiae Biologicae. 72. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 231−246.
Edge, W. D. & Olson-Edge, S. L. (1990). "Population Characteristics and Group Composition of Capra aegagrus in Kirthar National Park, Pakistan". Journal of Mammalogy. 71 (2): 156–160. doi:10.2307/1382162. JSTOR 1382162.

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