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Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Osteichthyes
Classis: Actinopterygii
Subclassis: Neopterygii
Infraclassis: Teleostei
Superordo: Acanthopterygii
Ordo: Perciformes
Subordo: Percoidei
Superfamilia: Percoidea
Familia: Centrarchidae
Genera: Acantharchus - Ambloplites - Archoplites - Centrarchus - Enneacanthus - Lepomis - Micropterus - Pomoxis

Vernacular names
Česky: Okounkovití
Deutsch: Sonnenbarsche
Nederlands: Zonnebaarzen
Polski: Bassowate

The sunfishes are a family (Centrarchidae) of freshwater ray-finned fish belonging to the order Perciformes. The type genus is Centrarchus (consisting solely of the flier, C. macropterus). The family's 27 species includes many fishes familiar to North Americans, including the rock bass, largemouth bass, bluegill, pumpkinseed, and crappies. All are native only to North America.

Family members are distinguished by having at least three anal spines. The dorsal spines are 5–13 in number, but most species have 10–12. The pseudobranch is small and concealed. Sizes of most are in the 20 centimetres (7.9 in) to 30 centimetres (12 in) range. However, some are much smaller, with the blackbanded sunfish at just 8 centimetres (3.1 in) in length, while the largemouth bass is reported to reach almost 1 metre (3.3 ft) in extreme cases.[1]

The male of most species builds a nest by hollowing out a depression using his tail, then guards the eggs.[1]

Most sunfishes are valued for sports fishing, and have been introduced in many areas outside their original ranges, sometimes becoming invasive species.

Fossil record

The earliest fossils of Centrarchidae are from Middle Miocene Nebraska, belonging to the redear sunfish (13.6-16.3 million years ago)[1].


Recent genetic evidence suggests the following phylogeny of the centrarchid genera:[2]

* family Centrarchidae
o Subfamily Centrarchinae
+ Tribe Ambloplitini
# Ambloplites
+ Tribe Archoplitini
# Archoplites
# Pomoxis
+ Tribe Centrarchini
# Centrarchus
+ Tribe Enneacanthini
# Enneacanthus
o Subfamily Lepominae
+ Tribe Lepomini
# Lepomis
o incertae sedis
+ Micropterus
+ Acantharchus


1. ^ a b Johnson, G.D. & Gill, A.C. (1998). Paxton, J.R. & Eschmeyer, W.N.. ed. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 187. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.
2. ^ Roe, Kevin J., Phillip M. Harris, and Richard L. Mayden (2002). "Phylogenetic Relationships of the Genera of North American Sunfishes and Basses (Percoidei: Centrarchidae) as Evidenced by the Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene" (PDF). Copeia 2002 (4): 897‒905. doi:10.1643/0045-8511(2002)002[0897:PROTGO]2.0.CO;2. http://bama.ua.edu/~pharris/lab/pdf%20files/Roe.pdf.

* Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2004). "Centrarchidae" in FishBase. October 2004 version.
* "Centrarchidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=168093. Retrieved 5 December 2004.
* German Website about Sunfishes and Basses www.sonnenbarsche.info

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Source: Wikipedia, Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License