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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Superclassis/Classis: Actinopterygii
Classis/Subclassis: Actinopteri
Subclassis/Infraclassis: Neopterygii
Infraclassis: Teleostei
Megacohors: Osteoglossocephalai
Supercohort: Osteoglossocephala
Cohort/Superordo: Osteoglossomorpha
Ordines: Hiodontiformes - †Ichthyodectiformes - Osteoglossiformes

Genera inc. sedis: †Lycoptera – †Paralycoptera – †Shuleichthys – †Tanolepis – †Xixiaichthys



Betancur-R., R., Broughton, R.E., Wiley, E.O., Carpenter, K., Andrés López, J., Li, C., Holcroft, N.I., Arcila, D., Sanciangco, M., Cureton II, J.C., Zhang, F., Buser, T., Campbell, M.A., Ballesteros, J.A., Roa-Varon, A., Willis, S., Borden, W.C., Rowley, T., Reneau, P.C., Hough, D.J., Lu, G., Grande, T., Arratia, G. & Ortí, G. 2013. The tree of life and a new classification of bony fishes. (PDF) PLOS Currents Tree of Life 2013 Apr 18: 1–45, downloadable Appendix 2 (new classification): 1–21, and downloadable Figure S1 (complete cladogram with annotated classification). DOI: 10.1371/currents.tol.53ba26640df0ccaee75bb165c8c26288 Reference page.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Osteoglossomorpha
English: Osteoglossomorpha
français: Osteoglossomorpha
Nederlands: Beentongvisachtigen
polski: Kostnojęzykopodobne
中文: 骨舌鱼类

Osteoglossomorpha is a group of bony fish in the Teleostei.

Notable members

A notable member is the arapaima (Arapaima gigas), the largest freshwater fish in South America and one of the largest bony fishes alive. Other notable members include the bizarre freshwater elephantfishes of family Mormyridae.

Most osteoglossomorph lineages are extinct today. Only the somewhat diverse "bone-tongues" (Osteoglossiformes) and two species of mooneyes (Hiodontiformes) remain.[1][2][3]

The Ichthyodectiform fishes from the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods were once classified as osteoglossomorphs, but are now generally recognized as stem teleosts.[1][4]

Basal and incertae sedis (Extinct)

Genus †Paralycoptera Chang & Chou, 1977
Genus †Jinanichthys Ma & Sun 1988 [Liaoxiichthys Su 1992]
Genus ?†Kokuraichthys Yabumoto 2013
Genus ?†Nierrkunia Su 1992
Genus ?†Shuleichthys Murray, You & Peng 2010
Genus ?†Suziichthys Su 1992
Genus ?†Wilsonichthys Murray, Newbrey, Neumand & Brinkmand 2016
Family †Jiaohichthyidae Ma 1983
Genus †Jiaohichthys Ma 1983
Family †Kuyangichthidae Liu, Ma & Liu, 1982
Genus †Kuyangichthys Liu, Ma & Liu 1982
Genus †Pulinia Ma 1983

Order †Lycopteriformes Chang & Chou 1977

Family †Juiquanichthyidae Ma, 1984
Genus †Jiuquanichthys Ma 1984
Genus †Changma Ma 1984
Genus †Qilianichthys Ma 1984
Family †Lycopteridae Liu, Su, Huang & Chang, 1963
Genus †Aokiichthys Yabumoto 1994
Genus †Changichthys Su 1991
Genus †Manchurichthys Saito 1936
Genus †Neolycoptera Dolgopol de Saez 1939
Genus †Pingolepis Chang & Chow 1974
Genus †Tongxinichthys Ma 1980
Genus †Yixianichthys Wu 2003
Genus †Yungkangichthys Chang & Chou 1977
Genus †Lycoptera Liu et al. 1963 [Asiatolepis Takai 1944; Sungarichthys Takai 1944]

Order Hiodontiformes McAllister 1968 sensu Taverne 1979

Genus †Chetungichthys Chang & Chou, 1977
Genus †Plesiolycoptera Zhang & Zhou 1976
Genus †Yanbiania Li 1987
Family Hiodontidae Valenciennes 1846 sensu stricto (mooneyes)
Genus †Eohiodon Cavender 1966
Genus Hiodon Lesueur 1818

Order Osteoglossiformes Regan 1909 sensu Zhang 2004

Genus Xixiaichthys Zhang 2004
Genus Tanolepis Jin 1994 [Tanichthys Jin 1991 non Lin 1932]
Family †Huashiidae Chang & Chou, 1977
Genus †Kuntulunia Liu, Ma & Liu 1982
Genus †Huashia Chang & Chou 1977
Suborder Pantodontoidei
Family Pantodontidae Peters 1876 (freshwater butterflyfishes)
Genus Pantodon Peters 1877
Suborder Osteoglossoidei Regan 1909
Genus †Genartina Frizzell & Dante 1965
Genus †Monopteros Volta 1796
Genus †Musperia Sanders 1934
Genus †Phareoides Taverne, 1973
Genus †Chauliopareion
Family †Brychaetidae Bonde 1966
Genus †Brychaetus Woodward 1901
Family †Singididae Greenwood & Patterson 1967
Genus †Singida Greenwood & Patterson 1967
Family Phaerodontidae Jordan 1925a
Genus †Phareodusichthys Gayet 1991
Genus †Cretophareodus Li 1996
Genus †Phareodus Leidy 1873
Family Osteoglossidae Bonaparte 1832 sensu lato (arowanas)
Suborder Notopteroidei Greenwood 1973
Family †Ostariostomidae Schaeffer, 1949
Genus †Ostariostoma Schaeffer 1949
Superfamily Notopteroidea
Family †Wakinoichthidae Yabumoto 1994
Genus Wakinoichthys Yabumoto 1994 corrig.
Family †Kipalaichthyidae Benveniste 1998
Genus †Kipalaichthys Casier 1965
Genus †Paradercetis Casier 1965
Family Notopteridae Bleeker 1851 (Brown knifefish; featherbacks)
Superfamily Mormyroidea
Family Gymnarchidae Bleeker 1859 (Aba, African Knifefish)
Family Mormyridae Bonaparte 1832 (freshwater elephantfishes)


Phylogeny based on the following works:[5][6][7]













Nelson, Joseph S.; Grande, Terry C.; Wilson, Mark V. H. (2016). Fishes of the World (5th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118342336.
Haaramo, Mikko (2007). "Osteoglossomorpha – bony-tongue fishes and relatives". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
van der Laan, Richard (2016). "Family-group names of fossil fishes".
Hilton, Eric J. (2003). "Comparative osteology and phylogenetic systematics of fossil and living bony-tongue fishes (Actinopterygii, Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 137: 1–100. doi:10.1046/j.1096-3642.2003.00032.x.
Betancur-Rodriguez, R.; et al. (2016). "Phylogenetic Classification of Bony Fishes Version 4". Deepfin. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
Lavoué, S., Sullivan J. P., & Hopkins C. D. (2003): Phylogenetic utility of the first two introns of the S7 ribosomal protein gene in African electric fishes (Mormyroidea: Teleostei) and congruence with other molecular markers. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 78, 273-292. PDF Archived 2014-10-30 at the Wayback Machine
Sullivan, J. P., Lavoué S., & Hopkins C. D. (2000): Molecular systematics of the African electric fishes (Mormyroidea: Teleostei) and a model for the evolution of their electric organs. Journal of Experimental Biology. 203, 665-683. PDF Archived 2014-10-30 at the Wayback Machine

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