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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Apiales

Familia: Araliaceae
Subfamiliae: Aralioideae – Hydrocotyloideae
Genera: AnakasiaAraliaAstropanaxAstrotrichaBrassaiopsisCephalaraliaCheirodendronCephalopanaxChengiopanaxCrepinellaCussoniaDendropanax – Didymopanax – EleutherococcusFatsia – Frodinia – GambleaHarmsiopanaxHedera – Heptapleurum – Heteropanax – Hunaniopanax – Hydrocotyle – KalopanaxMacropanax – Megalopanax – Merrilliopanax – Meryta – Motherwellia – Neocussonia – Neopanax – Oplopanax – Oreopanax – Osmoxylon – Panax – Pentapanax – Plerandra – Polyscias – Pseudopanax – Raukaua – Schefflera – Sciodaphyllum – Seemannaralia – Sinopanax – Stilbocarpa – Tetrapanax – Trachymene – TrevesiaWoodburnia
Paleogenus: †Paleopanax
Artificial Nothogenus: × Fatshedera


Araliaceae Juss., Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 217 (1789), nom. cons.

Type genus: Aralia L., Sp. Pl. 1: 273. (1753)


Anomopanaceae Hutch.
Botryodendraceae J. Agardh
Eremopanaceae Viguier
Hederaceae Giseke
Hydrocotylaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
Lagoeciaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
Panaceae Hook.f. in Le Maout & Decne.
Pseudopanaceae Seem.

Primary references

Jussieu, A.L. de 1789. Genera Plantarum (Jussieu) 217.

Additional references

Fiaschi, P., Lowry, P.P. & Plunkett, G.M. 2020. Studies in Neotropical Araliaceae. III. Resurrection of the New World genus Didymopanax Decne. & Planch., previously included in Schefflera (Araliaceae). Brittonia 72(1): 16–22. DOI: 10.1007/s12228-019-09604-w Paywall Reference page.
Frodin, D.G., Lowry, P.P. II & Plunkett, G.M. 2010. Schefflera (Araliaceae): taxonomic history, overview and progress. Plant Diversity and Evolution 128: 561–595. DOI: 10.1127/1869-6155/2010/0128-0028 Full text PDF from ResearchGate Reference page.
Lowry II P.P., Plunkett G.M. & Wen J. 2004. Generic relationships in Araliaceae: looking into the crystal ball. South African Journal of Botany 70: 382–392. DOI: 10.1016/S0254-6299(15)30221-0 Full text PDF Reference page.
Lowry, P.P., II & Plunkett, G.M. 2010. Recircumscription of Polyscias (Araliaceae) to include six related genera, with a new infrageneric classification and a synopsis of species. Plant Diversity and Evolution 128: 55–84. DOI: 10.1127/1869-6155/2010/0128-0003 Full text PDF from ResearchGate Reference page.
Lowry, P., Plunkett, G. & Frodin, D. 2013. Revision of Plerandra (Araliaceae). I. A synopsis of the genus with an expanded circumscription and a new infrageneric classification. Brittonia 65(1): 42-61. DOI: 10.1007/s12228-012-9260-2 Paywall ResearchGate Reference page.
Lowry, P.P., Plunkett, G.M., Gostel, M.R. & Frodin, D.G. 2017. A synopsis of the Afro-Malagasy species previously included in Schefflera (Araliaceae): resurrection of the genera Astropanax and Neocussonia. Candollea 72(2): 265-282. DOI: 10.15553/c2017v722a4 Paywall 318019996 ResearchGate Reference page.
Lowry II, P.P., Plunkett, G.M., Mora, M.M., Cano, A., Fiaschi, P., Frodin, D.G., Gereau, R.E., Idárraga-Piedrahíta, Á., Jiménez-Montoya, J., Mendoza, J.M.F. & Neill, D.A. 2019. Studies in Neotropical Araliaceae. I. Resurrection of the genus Sciodaphyllum P. Browne to accommodate most New World species previously included in Schefflera JR Forst. & G. Forst. Brittonia 72(1): 1-15. DOI: 10.1007/s12228-019-09593-w Paywall ResearchGate Reference page.
Lowry II, P.P., Plunkett, G.M. & Neill, D.A. 2019. Studies in Neotropical Araliaceae. II. Resurrection of the Neotropical Genus Crepinella for a Clade of New World Species Previously Included in Schefflera (Araliaceae). Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 27(4): 253-261. DOI: 351403419 Paywall ResearchGate Reference page.
Lowry II, P.P. & Plunkett, G.M. 2020. Resurrection of the genus Heptapleurum for the Asian clade of species previously included in Schefflera (Araliaceae). Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 28(3): 143-170. DOI: 10.3417/2020612 Paywall Reference page.
Manchester, S.R. 1994. Fruits and seeds of the Middle Eocene Nut Beds Flora, Clarno Formation, Oregon. Palaeontographica Americana 58: 1–205.
Plunkett, G.M. & Lowry, P.P. II. 2010. Paraphyly and polyphyly in Polyscias sensu lato: molecular evidence and the case for recircumscribing the "pinnate genera" of Araliaceae. Plant Diversity and Evolution 128: 23–54. DOI: 10.1127/1869-6155/2010/0128-0002 Full text PDF from ResearchGate Reference page.
Plunkett, G.M. & Lowry, P.P. II. 2012. Phylogeny and diversification in the Melanesian Schefflera Clade (Araliaceae) based on evidence from nuclear rDNA spacers. Systematic Botany 37: 279–291. DOI: 10.1600/036364412X616837 Full text PDF from ResearchGate Reference page.
Plunkett, G.M., Lowry, P.P. & Neill, D.A. 2021. Studies in Neotropical Araliaceae. VII. Two new genera, Cephalopanax and Frodinia, to accommodate the remaining species of Neotropical Schefflera. Brittonia 73(3): 1-11. DOI: 10.1007/s12228-021-09660-1 Paywall Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Araliaceae in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Jan. 28. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2022. 28. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2022. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Jan.. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2022. Araliaceae. Published online. Accessed: Jan. 28 2022.
Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page. Araliaceae: Araliaceae. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Feb. 19.

Vernacular names
العربية: أرالية
asturianu: Araliacees
azərbaycanca: Araliyakimilər
беларуская: Араліевыя
català: Araliàcies
čeština: Aralkovité
dansk: Vedbend-familien
Deutsch: Araliengewächse
English: Aralia family, Ivy family
Esperanto: Araliacoj
español: Araliáceas
eesti: Araalialised
فارسی: عشقه‌ایان
suomi: Araliakasvit
Nordfriisk: Araalienplaanten
français: Araliacées
עברית: קיסוסיים
hrvatski: Brestanjevke
magyar: Aráliafélék
հայերեն: Արալիազգիներ
italiano: Araliacee
日本語: ウコギ科
ქართული: არალიისებრნი
перем коми: Аралия котыр
한국어: 두릅나무과
kurdî: Famîleya lavlavkan
коми: Аралия котыр
lietuvių: Aralijiniai
македонски: Бршлени
മലയാളം: അരേലിയേസീ
кырык мары: Арали йишвлӓ
Nederlands: Klimopfamilie
norsk: Bergflettefamilien, Eføyfamilien, Ginsengfamilien
polski: Araliowate
русский: Аралиевые
slovenčina: Aralkovité
slovenščina: Bršljanovke
svenska: Araliaväxter
ไทย: วงศ์เล็บครุฑ
Türkçe: Sarmaşıkgiller
українська: Аралієві
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Araliyadoshlar
Tiếng Việt: Họ Cuồng, Họ Cam tùng
中文: 五加科

The Araliaceae are a family of flowering plants composed of about 43 genera and around 1500 species consisting of primarily woody plants and some herbaceous plants.[2][3] The morphology of Araliaceae varies widely, but it is predominantly distinguishable based on its woody habit, tropical distribution, and the presence of simple umbels.[4]

There are numerous plants of economic importance. Some genera, such as Hedera (the ivies), Fatsia (Japanese aralias) and Schefflera (the umbrella trees), are used as ornamental foliage plants. The family also includes Panax ginseng, the root of which is ginseng, used in traditional Chinese medicine.

1 Overview
2 Taxonomy and Systematics
3 Subfamilies and genera
4 See also
5 References
6 External links


The morphology of Araliaceae varies widely. Many studies have found that there is no unifying characteristic capable of classifying the family.[5] In general, Araliaceae species have large, usually alternate leaves, often with aromatic ethereal oils, five-petaled flowers, two to five carpels, simple umbels, and berries without carpophores or oil cavities.[6] Some taxa carry prickles, and the family is often woody but also occasionally herbaceous. While Araliaceae is predominantly a tropical family, some taxa are also endemic to temperate climates. They are found in the Americas, Eurasia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, and Pacific islands.

Some examples of Araliaceae include the angelica tree (Aralia spinosa), the devil's club (Oplopanax horridus), ivy (Hedera spp., including H. helix), and herbs such as ginseng (Panax spp.). Leaves are sometimes lauroid (resembling Laurus) and are simple to compound; when compound, they are ternate, pinnate, or palmate.

Araliaceae are found in the pluvial montane forest, very humid montane forest, and humid lowland river forest regions. They are also present in laurel forest, cloud forest, and warm, humid habitats.
Taxonomy and Systematics

Araliaceae is one of six angiosperm families recognized by APG IV belonging to the Apiales, an order within the Asterids.[7] Araliaceae is accepted to be a monophyletic branch within the Apiales.[8]

Within Araliaceae, there are four accepted groups:[9]

1. The Greater Raukaua group, sister to the rest of the main Araliaceae clades.

2. The Aralia-Panax group, consisting of the mostly monophyletic genera Aralia and Panax.

3. The Polyscias-Pseudopanax group, sister to both genus Cussonia and the Asian Palmate group.

4. The Asian Palmate group, largest of the groups representing Araliaceae.

There are also multiple taxa that float around these groups, but are not within them.

The generic level classification of the Araliaceae has been unstable and remains under study. For instance, numerous genera have been synonymized under Schefflera, within which about half the species within Araliaceae are placed. Recent molecular phylogenies have shown that this large pantropical genus is polyphyletic[10] and some believe it should be divided again into several genera, though these would probably not correspond with the previously recognized genera.

Recent molecular systematics techniques have made major improvements into understanding of the evolution of Araliaceae, leading to the knowledge existing today. Due to widely varying morphological characters, the systematics of Araliaceae had been largely debated over the past century, especially in the absence of molecular evidence. For instance, Araliaceae were previously merged into the closely related Apiaceae (synonym: Umbelliferae) in some taxonomic treatments that have since been rejected.[11][12] The family is closely related to the Apiaceae and Pittosporaceae, but some of the exact boundaries between Araliaceae and the other families of Apiales are still uncertain and are currently being examined.

One example group that proved problematic for Araliaceae systematics is subfamily Hydrocotyloideae. Molecular phylogenies suggest at least some of the genera traditionally spanning across Araliaceae and Apiaceae as Hydrocotyloideae[13][14] appear to be more closely related to Araliaceae. It has been recommended that subfamily Hydrocotyloideae be narrowed to just include genera Hydrocotyle, Trachymene, and Harmsiopanax to form a monophyletic group in Araliaceae.[15]
Subfamilies and genera

Subfamily Aralioideae

Polyscias (includes former genera Arthrophyllum, Cuphocarpus as subgenera)

Subfamily Hydrocotyloideae


Subfamily incertae sedis

†Araliaceoipollenites (fossil pollen)

See also

List of foliage plant diseases (Araliaceae)


Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 105–121, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x, archived from the original on 2017-05-25, retrieved 2010-12-10
Kim, Kyunghee; Nguyen, Van Binh; Dong, Jingzhou; Wang, Ying; Park, Jee Young; Lee, Sang-Choon; Yang, Tae-Jin (December 2017). "Evolution of the Araliaceae family inferred from complete chloroplast genomes and 45S nrDNAs of 10 Panax-related species". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 4917. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-05218-y. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 5501832. PMID 28687778.
"Araliaceae". Retrieved 2018-02-07.
Elpel, Thomas J., author. (2013). Botany in a day : the patterns method of plant identification : an herbal field guide to plant families of North America. ISBN 978-1-892784-35-3. OCLC 1037950883. {{cite book}}: |last= has generic name (help)
Plunkett, Gregory M.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S. (1996). "Higher level relationships of Apiales (Apiaceae and Araliaceae) based on phylogenetic analysis of rbc L sequences". American Journal of Botany. 83 (4): 499–515. doi:10.1002/j.1537-2197.1996.tb12731.x.
Plant systematics : a phylogenetic approach. Judd, Walter S., Campbell, Christopher S., Kellogg, Elizabeth Anne. (Third ediiton ed.). Sunderland, MA. 2008. ISBN 978-0-87893-407-2. OCLC 126229888.
The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385.
Kim, Kyunghee; Nguyen, Van Binh; Dong, Jingzhou; Wang, Ying; Park, Jee Young; Lee, Sang-Choon; Yang, Tae-Jin (December 2017). "Evolution of the Araliaceae family inferred from complete chloroplast genomes and 45S nrDNAs of 10 Panax-related species". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 4917. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-05218-y. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 5501832. PMID 28687778.
Li, Rong; Wen, Jun (2016). "Phylogeny and diversification of Chinese Araliaceae based on nuclear and plastid DNA sequence data: Phylogeny and diversification of Chinese Araliaceae". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (4): 453–467. doi:10.1111/jse.12196.
Wen, J., G. M. Plunkett, A. D. Mitchell, and S.J. Wagstaff. 2001. The Evolution of Araliaceae: A Phylogenetic Analysis Based on ITS Sequences of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA. Systematic Botany 26: 144–167 (abstract).
"Araliaceae". Retrieved 2018-02-07.
Judd, Walter S. (1994). Angiosperm family pairs : preliminary phylogenetic analyses. Harvard Papers in Botany. OCLC 30923673.
Plunkett, G.M., Soltis, D.E. & Soltis, P.S. 1997. Clarification of the relationship between Apiaceae and Araliaceae based on MATK and RBCL sequence data. American Journal of Botany 84: 565-580 (available online; pdf file).
Chandler, G. T.; Plunkett, G. M. (2004). "Evolution in Apiales: Nuclear and chloroplast markers together in (almost) perfect harmony". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 144 (2): 123–147. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2003.00247.x.
Nicolas, Antoine N.; Plunkett, Gregory M. (2009). "The demise of subfamily Hydrocotyloideae (Apiaceae) and the re-alignment of its genera across the entire order Apiales". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 53 (1): 134–151. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.06.010. PMID 19549570.
Manchester, S.R. (1994). "Fruits and Seeds of the Middle Eocene Nut Beds Flora, Clarno Formation, Oregon". Palaeontographica Americana. 58: 30–31.

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