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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Apiales

Familia: Araliaceae
Subfamilia: Aralioideae
Genus: Panax
Species: P. assamicus – P. bipinnatifidus - P. ginseng - P. japonicus - P. notoginseng - P. pseudoginseng - P. quinquefolius – P. sokpayensis – P. stipuleanatus - P. trifolius - P. vietnamensis - P. wangianus - P. zingiberensis


Panax L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1058. (1753)

Typus: P. quinquefolius
L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1058. (1753)


Aureliana Boehm. in Ludwig, C.G., Def. Gen. ed. 3. 283. (1760) [1], [2].
Ginsen Adans., Fam. 2: 102, 561. (1763)
Panacea Mitch., Diss. Gen. Pl. 43. (1769)
Ginseng Alph.Wood, Amer. Bot. Fl.: 142. (1871)
Panaxus St.-Lag., Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 109. (1880)


Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 1058.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2017. Panax L. in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2017 Dec. 20. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2017. Panax L.. Published online. Accessed: DEc. 20 2017.
Farr, E. R. & Zijlstra, G. eds. (1996-) Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). 2009 Dec 23 [3].

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Ginseng
English: Ginseng
eesti: Ženšenn
suomi: Ginsengit
français: Ginseng
Nederlands: Ginseng
русский: Женьшень
svenska: Ginsengsläktet
ไทย: โสม
Türkçe: Ginseng
Tiếng Việt: sâm
中文: 人参属

The Panax (ginseng) genus belongs to the Araliaceae[1] (ivy) family. Panax species are characterized by the presence of ginsenosides and gintonin. Panax is one of approximately 60 plant genera with a classical disjunct east Asian and east North American distribution.[2] Furthermore, this disjunct distribution is asymmetric as only two of the ~18 species in genus are native to North America.

American ginseng at Monk Garden in Wisconsin .

The name Panax, meaning "all-healing" in Greek, shares the same origin as "panacea" and was used for this genus because Carl Linnaeus was aware of its wide use in Chinese medicine.
Panax species

Subgenus Panax
Section Panax
Series Notoginseng
Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F.H.Chen (known as san qi, tian qi or tien chi)
Series Panax
Panax assamicus (Assam Ginseng) [4]
Panax bipinnatifidus Seem. [5]
var. angustifolius (Burkill) J.Wen
Panax ginseng C.A.Mey. (Asian ginseng, Chinese ginseng, Korean ginseng, Asiatic ginseng, Oriental ginseng)[6]
Panax japonicus (T.Nees) C.A.Mey. (Japanese ginseng)[7][8][9]
Panax quinquefolius L. (American ginseng)
Panax sokpayensis Shiva K.Sharma & Pandit [10]
Panax vietnamensis Ha & Grushv.
Panax wangianus S.C.Sun [11]
Panax zingiberensis C.Y.Wu & Feng
Section Pseudoginseng
Panax pseudoginseng Wall.
Panax stipuleanatus H.T.Tsai & K.M.Feng [12][13]
Subgenus Trifolius
Panax trifolius L.


"Ivy Family - Araliaceae - Common names". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 2018-07-14.
Zuo, Yun-Juan; Wen, Jun; Ma, Jin-Shuang; Zhou, Shi-Liang (2015). "Evolutionary radiation of the Panax bipinnatifidus species complex (Araliaceae) in the Sino-Himalayan region of eastern Asia as inferred from AFLP analysis". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 53 (3): 210–220. doi:10.1111/jse.12119. ISSN 1759-6831.
"'Panax search' from the Plant List". The Plant List, v. 1.1. 2013. Retrieved June 20, 2017.
"Panax Assamicus".
"Panax bipinnatifidus Seem. — The Plant List". Retrieved 2018-07-14.
"Asian Ginseng". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). September 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
Rai, Amit; Yamazaki, Mami; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michimi; Kojoma, Mareshige; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Saito, Kazuki (2016). "RNA-seq Transcriptome Analysis of Panax japonicus, and Its Comparison with Other Panax Species to Identify Potential Genes Involved in the Saponins Biosynthesis". Frontiers in Plant Science. 7: 481. doi:10.3389/fpls.2016.00481. ISSN 1664-462X. PMC 4828455. PMID 27148308.
"Japanese ginseng". Retrieved 2018-07-14.
Plantae Medicinales oder Sammlung offizineller Pflanzen.
Sharma, Shiva Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj Krishan (2009). "A New Species of Panax L. (Araliaceae) from Sikkim Himalaya, India". Systematic Botany. 34 (2): 434–438. doi:10.1600/036364409788606235. JSTOR 40211904.
"Panax wangianus S.C.Sun — The Plant List". Retrieved 2018-07-14.
"Panax stipuleanatus H.T.Tsai & K.M.Feng — The Plant List". Retrieved 2018-07-14.
Trieu, Le Ngoc; Mien, Nguyen Tuong; Van Tien, Tran; Van Ket, Nguyen; Van Duy, Nong (16 March 2016). "Genetic diversity of Tsai in North Vietnam detected by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers". Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment. 30 (3): 506–511. doi:10.1080/13102818.2016.1157448.

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