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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Celastrales

Familia: Celastraceae
Genus: Euonymus
Subgenera: E. subg. Euonymus – E. subg. Kalonymus

Species: E. acanthocarpus – E. acanthoxanthus – E. actinocarpus – E. aculeatus – E. aculeolus – E. acuminifolius – E. alatus – E. americanus – E. angulatus – E. assamicus – E. atropurpureus – E. attenuatus – E. australiana – E. baekdusanensis – E. balansae – E. barberi – E. benguetensis – E. benthamii – E. bockii – E. boninensis – E. bullatus – E. carnosus – E. castaneifolius – E. centidens – E. chengiae – E. chenmoui – E. chiapensis – E. chibae – E. chloranthoides – E. chuii – E. cinereus – E. clivicolus – E. cochinchinensis – E. cornutus – E. corymbosus – E. costaricensis – E. crenulatus – E. dichotomus – E. dielsianus – E. distichus – E. dolichopus – E. eberhardtii – E. echinatus – E. elaeodendroides – E. enantiophyllus – E. europaeus – E. euscaphis – E. ficoides – E. fimbriatus – E. fortunei – E. frigidus – E. fusiformis – E. gibber – E. giraldii – E. glaber – E. glandulosus – E. gracillimus – E. grandiflorus – E. griffithii – E. hainanensis – E. hamiltonianus – E. huangii – E. hui – E. hukuangensis – E. hupehensis – E. impressus – E. indicus – E. japonicus – E. jinyangensis – E. kachinensis – E. kanyakumariensis – E. kengmaensis – E. kweichowensis – E. lanceolatus – E. latifolius – E. lawsonii – E. laxicymosus – E. laxiflorus – E. leiophloeus – E. leishanensis – E. lichiangensis – E. lucidus – E. lutchuensis – E. maackii – E. macrocarpus – E. macropterus – E. melananthus – E. mexicanus – E. microcarpus – E. miniata – E. moluccensis – E. myrianthus – E. nanoides – E. nanus – E. nitidus – E. obovatus – E. occidentalis – E. oxyphyllus – E. parasimilis – E. percoriaceus – E. phellomanus – E. pittosporoides – E. pleurostylioides – E. potingensis – E. prismatomerioides – E. pseudovagans – E. recurvans – E. rehderianus – E. revolutus – E. rothschuhii – E. sachalinensis – E. salicifolius – E. sanguineus – E. schensianus – E. semenovii – E. serratifolius – E. sootepensis – E. spraguei – E. stenophyllus – E. subcordatus – E. subsulcatus – E. szechuanensis – E. tashiroi – E. tenuiserratus – E. ternifolius – E. theacolus – E. theifolius – E. tibeticus – E. tingens – E. tonkinensis – E. tsoi – E. vaganoides – E. vagans – E. velutinus – E. venosus – E. verrucocarpus – E. verrucosoides – E. verrucosus – E. viburnoides – E. walkeri – E. wilsonii – E. wrayi – E. wui – E. yakushimensis – E. yunnanensis

Source(s) of checklist:

Euonymus L. Sp. Pl. 1: 197 (1753), nom. cons. & orth. cons.

Type species: E. europaeus L., designated by Britton & Brown (1913).


Genitia Nakai, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 13: 21. 1943.
Type species: G. tanakae (Maxim.) Nakai
Kalonymus (Beck) Prokh., Fl. URSS 14: 744. (1949)
Masakia (Nakai) Nakai, J. Jap. Bot. 24: 11. 1949.
Type species: non design.
Melanocarya Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 31(1): 453. 1858.
Type species: M. alata (Thunb.) Turcz.
Pragmotessara Pierre, Fl. Forest. Cochinchine ad t. 309. 1895, nom. illeg.
Type species: P. echinata (Wall.) Pierre
Quadripterygium Tardieu, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 95: 179. 1948.
Type species: Q. poilanei Tardieu
Sphaerodiscus Nakai, J. Jap. Bot. 17: 686. 1941.
Type species: S. cochinchinensis (Pierre) Nakai
Turibana (Nakai) Nakai, J. Jap. Bot. 24: 12. (1949)
Vyenomus C.Presl, Abh. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. ser. 5. 3: 462. 1845; Pragmatropa Pierre, Fl. Forest. Cochinch. ad t. 309. 1894, nom. illeg.
Type species: V. pendulus (Wall. ex M.A.Lawson) C.Presl


The spelling Euonymus has been conserved against the originally used Evonymus. Also the Spermatophyta Committee rejected (Taxon 49: 270–271. 2000) a proposal to conserve the gender of Euonymus as feminine. The Code currently regards the name to be masculine since it lists the type as E. europaeus, and the Committee decided not to amend this usage.

The name Euonymus ser. Orientales (Loes., Nat. Pflanz., ed. 2 (Engler & Prantl) 20b: 117. 1942), nom. inval. is invalid as no Latin description or diagnosis was provided with the original publication. Also series is given as a rank above section. The name cannot be used.

Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 197. Reference page.

Additional references

Britton, N.L. & Brown, A. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102d meridian. ed. 2. C. Scribner's sons, New York. Vol. 2: 498. Reference page.
Savinov, I.A. 2011. Система и эволюция порядка Celastrales на основе данных сравнительной морфологии 4 [1].
Li, Y.-N., Xie, L., Li, J.-Y. & Zhang, Z.-X. 2014. Phylogeny of Euonymus inferred from molecular and morphological data, Journal of Systematics and Evolution 52: 149–160. DOI: 10.1111/jse.12068. Proposes replacing the sub-generic taxa with only Euonymus Sect. Echinococcus (with spiny fruits) and Euonymus Sect. Kalonymus (with winged fruits). Also presents evidence that the inclusion of Glyptopetalum renders Euonymus s.l. monphyletic. This is not accepted.


Hassler, M. 2019. Euonymus. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2019 September 30. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Euonymus in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2019 September 30. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Euonymus. Published online. Accessed: September 30 2019. 2019. Euonymus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 30 September 2019.

Vernacular names
العربية: مضاض
azərbaycanca: Gərməşov
беларуская: Брызгліна
català: Evònim
čeština: brslen
чӑвашла: Кăпчанкă
dansk: Benved
Deutsch: Spindelsträucher
Ελληνικά: Ευώνυμο
English: Spindle
Esperanto: Evonimo
español: Husos
eesti: Kikkapuu
فارسی: گوشوارک
suomi: Sorvarinpensaat
français: Fusains Véritables
Gaeilge: Feoras
hrvatski: Kurika
hornjoserbsce: Kapralc
magyar: Kecskerágó (növénynemzetség)
հայերեն: Իլենի
日本語: ニシキギ属
ქართული: ჭანჭყატი
lietuvių: Ožekšnis
македонски: Курика
кырык мары: Пыйиванды
Nederlands: Kardinaalsmuts
norsk: Spolebuskslekta
ирон: Æхснарцъы
polski: Trzmielina
русский: Бересклет
slovenčina: bršlen
svenska: Benved
Türkçe: Papazkülahı, İğ ağacı
удмурт: Угыёпу
українська: Бруслина
中文: 卫矛属

Euonymus /juːˈɒnɪməs/ is a genus of flowering plants in the staff vine family, Celastraceae. Common names vary widely among different species and between different English-speaking countries, but include spindle (or spindle tree), burning-bush, strawberry-bush, wahoo, wintercreeper, or simply euonymus. It comprises about 130 species[2][3] of deciduous and evergreen shrubs, small trees and lianas. They are mostly native to East Asia, extending to the Himalayas,[4] and they are also distributed in Europe, Australasia, North America, and Madagascar. 50 species are endemic to China.[2]


The inconspicuous flowers occur in small groups, and can be green, yellow, pink or maroon in color depending on species.[4] The leaves are opposite (rarely alternate) and simple ovoid, typically 2–15 cm long, and usually with a finely serrated margin. The fruit is a pink or white four- or five-valved pod-like berry, which splits open to reveal the fleshy-coated orange or red seeds.

The seeds are eaten by frugivorous birds, which digest the fleshy seed coat and disperse the seeds in their droppings. Many species are used for medicinal use, and parts of the plants can be poisonous to humans.[5]
Cultivation and uses
Mature spindle fruit (Euonymus sp.), split open to reveal the seeds

The wood of some species was traditionally used for the making of spindles for spinning wool;[6] this use is the origin of the British English name of the shrubs.

Euonymus are popular garden shrubs, grown for their foliage, the deciduous species often exhibiting very bright red autumnal colours, and also for the decorative berries. However, Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus or burning-bush) is considered an invasive species in the woodlands of the northeastern United States.
Euonymus fortunei in a nursery

Species include:[7]

Euonymus acanthocarpus
Euonymus acuminifolius[8]
Euonymus alatus – winged spindle, burning-bush
Euonymus americanus – strawberry-bush
Euonymus angulatus
Euonymus assamicus
Euonymus atropurpureus – eastern burning-bush, eastern wahoo
Euonymus bungeanus – winterberry euonymus
Euonymus castaneifolius[8]
Euonymus cochinchinensis
Euonymus carnosus
Euonymus cornutus
Euonymus dichotomus
Euonymus echinatus
Euonymus europaeus – European spindle
Euonymus fimbriatus – fringed spindle tree
Euonymus fortunei – Fortune's spindle, wintercreeper
Euonymus frigidus
Euonymus glandulosus
Euonymus grandiflorus
Euonymus hamiltonianus – Hamilton's spindle, Himalayan spindle
Euonymus indicus
Euonymus japonicus – Japanese spindle, evergreen spindle
Euonymus javanicus
Euonymus kiautschovicus – spreading euonymus
Euonymus kwangtungensis
Euonymus lanceifolia
Euonymus latifolius – broadleaf spindle
Euonymus melananthus
Euonymus mengtzeanus[3]
Euonymus morrisonensis

Euonymus myrianthus
Euonymus nanoides
Euonymus nanus – dwarf spindle
Euonymus nitidus
Euonymus obovatus – running strawberry-bush
Euonymus occidentalis – western burning-bush
Euonymus oxyphyllus – Korean spindletree[9]
Euonymus pallidifolius
Euonymus paniculatus
Euonymus pauciflorus
Euonymus pendulus (syn. E. lucidus)
Euonymus phellomanus
Euonymus pittosporoides[10]
Euonymus planipes – dingle-dangle tree
Euonymus prismatomerioides[10]
Euonymus pseudovagans[3]
Euonymus sachalinensis
Euonymus sanguineus
Euonymus schensianus
Euonymus semenovii
Euonymus serratifolius
Euonymus tenuiserrata[10]
Euonymus thwaitesii
Euonymus velutinus
Euonymus verrucocarpa[10]
Euonymus verrucosoides
Euonymus verrucosus
Euonymus walkeri
Euonymus wui[3]


"Genus: Euonymus L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 5 October 2007. Archived from the original on 1 September 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
Euonymus. Flora of China.
Du, C., et al. (2013). Revision of three species of Euonymus (Celastraceae) from China. Phytotaxa 109(1) 45-53.
Botanica: The Illustrated A-Z of over 10000 Garden Plants and How to Cultivate Them. Könemann, 2004. pg. 358. ISBN 3-8331-1253-0
Plants for a Future: Euonymus europaeus
Clapham, A. R. (1975). The Oxford Book of Trees. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p.31.
Euonymus Species List. Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2013-07-04.
"Euonymus". The Plant List. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. 2015. p. 463. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2016 – via Korea Forest Service.
Ma, J. (1998). New species of Asian Euonymus (Celastraceae). Harvard Papers in Botany 3(2) 231-37.

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