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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Ordo: Proteales

Familia: Proteaceae
Subfamilia: Grevilleoideae
Tribus: BanksieaeEmbothrieaeMacadamieaeRoupaleae

Genera: AlloxylonAthertoniaAustromuelleraBanksiaBleasdaleaBrabejumBuckinghamiaCardwelliaCarnarvoniaCatalepidiaDarlingiaDryandraEmbothriumEucarphaEuplassaFinschiaFloydiaGevuinaGrevilleaHakeaHeliciaHeliciopsisHicksbeachiaHollandaeaKermadeciaKnightiaLambertiaLomatiaMacadamiaMalagasiaMegahertziaMusgraveaNeoritesOpisthiolepisOreocallisOritesPanopsisRoupalaSleumerodendronSphalmiumStenocarpusStrangeaTelopeaTriuniaTurrilliaVirotiaXylomelum

Paleogenera: †Banksieaeformis – †Banksieaeidites – †Banksieaephyllum

Grevilleoideae Engl. in H.G.A. Engler & K.A.E. Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III, 1: 128. (1888)

Type genus: Grevillea R. Br. ex T. Knight, (1809) nom. cons.


Carnarvonioideae L.A.S.Johnson & B.G.Briggs, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 70: 172. (1975)
Type genus: Carnarvonia F.Muell.
Sphalmioideae L.A.S.Johnson & B.G.Briggs, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 70: 172. (1975)
Type genus: Sphalmium B.C.Briggs, B.Hyland & L.A.S.Johnson


Weston, P.H. & Barker, N.P. 2006. A new suprageneric classification of the Proteaceae, with an annotated checklist of genera. Telopea 11(3): 314–344. Full article (PDF) Reference page.
Engler, A. 1888. Proteaceae (pp. 119-156). In 'Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien nebst ihren Gattungen und wichtigeren Arten, insbesondere den Nutzpflanzen, unter Mitwirkung zahlreicher hervorragender Fachgelehrten begründet.' (Eds) A. Engler, K.A.E. Prantl, (W. Engelmann: Leipzig). Vol. 3(1)

The Grevilleoideae are a subfamily of the flowering plant family Proteaceae. Mainly restricted to the Southern Hemisphere, it contains around 46 genera and about 950 species. Genera include Banksia, Grevillea, and Macadamia.

1 Description
2 Distribution and habitat
3 Taxonomy
3.1 Roupaleae
3.2 Banksieae
3.3 Embothrieae
3.4 Macadamieae
4 Uses
5 References
6 External links


The Grevilleoideae grow as trees, shrubs, or subshrubs. They are highly variable, making a simple, diagnostic identification key for the subfamily essentially impossible to provide. One common and fairly diagnostic characteristic is the occurrence of flowers in pairs that share a common bract. However, a few Grevilleoideae taxa do not have this property, having solitary flowers or inflorescences of unpaired flowers. In most taxa, the flowers occur in densely packed heads or spikes, and the fruit is a follicle.
Distribution and habitat

Grevilleoideae are mainly a Southern Hemisphere family. The main centre of diversity is Australia, with around 700 of 950 species occurring there, and South America also contains taxa. However, the Grevilleoideae are barely present in Africa; almost all of the Proteaceae taxa there belong to the subfamily Proteoideae.[1] The Brabejum tree of Cape Town is the exception, and the only grevilleoid in Africa.
Stenocarpus sinuatus (firewheel tree)
Lomatia silaifolia
Telopea oreades, the Gippsland waratah
Grevillea banksii
Banksia sessilis (parrotbush)

The framework for classification of the Proteaceae was laid by L.A.S. Johnson and Barbara Briggs in their 1975 monograph "On the Proteaceae: the evolution and classification of a southern family".[2] Their classification has been refined somewhat over the ensuing three decades, most notably by Peter H. Weston and Nigel Barker in 2006. The Grevilleoideae are now considered one of five subfamilies of the Proteaceae. The placement and circumscription of the Grevilleoideae in four tribes, according to Weston and Barker can be summarised as:[3]

Tribe incertae sedis

Sphalmium — Carnarvonia


Authority: Meisn.

incertae sedis

Megahertzia — Knightia — Eucarpha — Triunia

Subtribe Roupalinae L.A.S.Johnson & B.G.Briggs

Roupala — Neorites — Orites

Subtribe Lambertiinae (Venk.Rao) L.A.S.Johnson & B.G.Briggs

Lambertia — Xylomelum

Subtribe Heliciinae L.A.S.Johnson & B.G.Briggs

Helicia — Hollandaea

Subtribe Floydiinae L.A.S.Johnson & B.G.Briggs

Darlingia — Floydia


Authority: Rchb.

fossil form genera

Banksieaeidites — Banksieaeformis — Banksieaephyllum

Subtribe Musgraveinae L.A.S.Johnson & B.G.Briggs

Musgravea — Austromuellera

Subtribe Banksiinae L.A.S.Johnson & B.G.Briggs



Authority: Rchb.

Subtribe Lomatiinae L.A.S.Johnson & B.G.Briggs


Subtribe Embothriinae Endl.

Embothrium — Oreocallis — Alloxylon — Telopea

Subtribe Stenocarpinae L.A.S.Johnson & B.G.Briggs

Stenocarpus — Strangea

Subtribe Hakeinae Endl.

Opisthiolepis — Buckinghamia — Hakea — Grevillea — Finschia


Authority: Venk.Rao

Subtribe Macadamiinae L.A.S.Johnson & B.G.Briggs

Macadamia — Panopsis — Brabejum

Subtribe Malagasiinae P.H.Weston & N.P.Barker

Malagasia — Catalepidia

Subtribe Virotiinae P.H.Weston & N.P.Barker

Virotia — Athertonia — Heliciopsis

Subtribe Gevuininae L.A.S.Johnson & B.G.Briggs

Cardwellia — Sleumerodendron — Euplassa — Gevuina — Bleasdalea — Hicksbeachia — Kermadecia — Turrillia

Edible nuts of Macadamia

The nursery industry cultivates many Grevilleoideae species as barrier plants and for their prominent and distinctive flowers and foliage. Some species are of importance to the cut-flower industry, especially some Banksia and Dryandra species. Two species of the genus Macadamia and the Chilean species Gevuina avellana (Chilean hazel) are grown commercially for edible nuts. Chilean hazel has an acceptable frost tolerance.

Orchard, Anthony E. (ed.). "Proteaceae". Flora of Australia, Volume 16: Elaeagnaceae, Proteaceae 1. Melbourne: Australian Biological Resources Study / CSIRO Publishing. Archived from the original on 2006-10-31. Retrieved 2006-06-28.
L. A. S. Johnson and Briggs, B. G. (1975). "On the Proteaceae: the evolution and classification of a southern family". Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Botany. 70 (2): 83–182. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1975.tb01644.x.
Weston, Peter H.; Barker, Nigel P. (2006). "A new suprageneric classification of the Proteaceae, with an annotated checklist of genera" (PDF). Telopea. 11 (3): 314–344. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-10-02.

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