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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Apiales

Familia: Araliaceae
Subfamilia: Hydrocotyloideae
Genus: Hydrocotyle
Species: H. aconitifolia – H. acuminata – H. acutifolia – H. acutiloba – H. adrianae – H. alata – H. alchemilloides – H. algida – H. alpestris – H. americana – H. andina – H. apolobambensis – H. aristeguietae – H. barbarossa – H. benguetensis – H. blepharocarpa – H. boliviana – H. bonariensis – H. bonplandii – H. bowlesioides – H. bradei – H. brittonii – H. burmanica – H. calcicola – H. callicarpa – H. callicephala – H. capillaris – H. capitata – H. chamaemorus – H. changanensis – H. chevalieri – H. chiangdaoensis – H. comocarpa – H. conferta – H. coriacea – H. corynophora – H. crassiuscula – H. cryptocarpa – H. cuatrecasasii – H. dahlgrenii – H. diantha – H. dichondroides – H. dielsiana – H. digitata – H. dipleura – H. dissecta – H. domingensis – H. eccentrica – H. elongata – H. escondida – H. exigua – H. feaniana – H. felipae – H. filipes – H. foveolata – H. galapagensis – H. geraniifolia – H. globiflora – H. gracilis – H. grammatocarpa – H. grossulariifolia – H. grossularioides – H. gunnerifolia – H. hederacea – H. heucherifolia – H. hexagona – H. himalaica – H. hirsuta – H. hirta – H. hispidula – H. hitchcockii – H. hookeri – H. humboldtii – H. incrassata – H. indecora – H. itatiaiensis – H. jacksonii – H. javanica – H. juanae – H. langsdorffii – H. lanipes – H. laxiflora – H. lehmannii – H. lemnoides – H. leucocephala – H. longipedunculata – H. longipes – H. lopeziae – H. mannii – H. medicaginoides – H. mexicana – H. microphylla – H. miranda – H. modesta – H. moschata – H. multifida – H. muriculata – H. muscosa – H. nepalensis – H. newguinensis – H. nixoides – H. novae-zealandiae – H. novoguineensis – H. oligantha – H. oraria – H. palmata – H. paludosa – H. pedicellosa – H. peduncularis – H. peltiformis – H. pennellii – H. peruviana – H. petelotii – H. phoenix – H. pilifera – H. plebeia – H. poeppigii – H. prolifera – H. pseudoboliviana – H. pseudoconferta – H. pseudosanicula – H. pterocarpa – H. pusilla – H. pygmaea – H. quinqueloba – H. ramiflora – H. ranunculoides – H. rhombifolia – H. ribifolia – H. rivularis – H. rugulosa – H. sagasteguii – H. salwinica – H. schlechteri – H. scutellifera – H. serendipita – H. setulosa – H. siamica – H. sibthorpioides – H. solomonii – H. sphenoloba – H. steyermarkii – H. striata – H. sulcata – H. tambalomaensis – H. tenerrima – H. tetragonocarpa – H. tonkinensis – H. torresiana – H. trachycarpa – H. tripartita – H. tumida – H. ulei – H. umbellata – H. urbaniana – H. venezuelensis – H. versteegii – H. verticillata – H. vestita – H. vulgaris – H. wilfordii – H. wilsonii – H. yabei – H. yanghuangensis – H. zongoana
Source(s) of checklist:

Hydrocotyle L., 1753

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 234. Reference page.


Hassler, M. 2018. Hydrocotyle. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 17. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Hydrocotyle. Published online. Accessed: Nov. 17 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Hydrocotyle in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 17. 2018. Hydrocotyle. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 17.

Vernacular names
català: Hidrocòtile
čeština: pupečník
dansk: Vandnavle-slægten
Deutsch: Wassernabel
English: water pennywort, Indian Pennywort, Marsh Penny, Thick-leaved Pennywort
Esperanto: Hidrokotilo
suomi: Sammakonputket
hornjoserbsce: Pupnik
日本語: チドメグサ属
Nederlands: Waternavel
polski: Wąkrota
português: cairuçu
русский: Щитолистник
slovenčina: pupkovník
svenska: Spikbladsläktet
中文: 天胡荽属

Hydrocotyle, sometimes called water pennywort,[4] Indian pennywort, dollar weed, marsh penny, thick-leaved pennywort and even white rot[5] is a genus of prostrate, perennial[6] aquatic or semi-aquatic plants formerly classified in the family Apiaceae, now in the family Araliaceae.[3]


Water pennyworts, Hydrocotyles, are very common. They have long creeping stems that often form dense mats, often in and near ponds, lakes, rivers, marshes[4] and some species in coastal areas by the sea.[7][8]

Simple, with small leafy outgrowth at the base, kidney shaped to round. Leaf edges are scalloped. The leaf surfaces of Hydrocotyle are prime grounds for oviposition of many butterfly species, such as Anartia fatima.
Flower clusters are simple and flat-topped or rounded. Involucral bracts Inconspicuous bracts at the base of each flower. Indistinct sepals.
Fruits and reproduction
Elliptical to round with thin ridges and no oil tubes (vitta) which is characteristic in the fruit of umbelliferous plants.[6]
The prostrate plants reproduce by seed and by sending roots from stem nodes.[9]

Selected species

The genus Hydrocotyle has between 75 and 100 species.[10] that grow in tropical and temperate regions worldwide[6] A few species have entered the world of cultivated ornamental aquatics.[11] A list of selected species:[1][2][3][10][12][13][14]

Hydrocotyle americana L. — American marshpennywort
Hydrocotyle asiatica L. is now correctly known as Centella asiatica
Hydrocotyle batrachium Hance
Hydrocotyle benguetensis Elm.
Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. — largeleaf pennywort
Hydrocotyle bowlesioides Mathias & Constance — largeleaf marshpennywort
Hydrocotyle calcicola
Hydrocotyle dichondroides Makino
Hydrocotyle dielsiana
Hydrocotyle heteromeria — waxweed
Hydrocotyle hexagona
Hydrocotyle himalaica
Hydrocotyle hirsuta Sw. — yerba de clavo
Hydrocotyle hirta
Hydrocotyle hitchcockii
Hydrocotyle hookeri
Hydrocotyle hydrophila - endemic to New Zealand[15]
Hydrocotyle javanica Thunb.
Hydrocotyle keelungensis Liu, Chao & Chuang
Hydrocotyle leucocephala Cham. & Schltdl. — Brazilian pennywort
Hydrocotyle mannii Hook.f.
Hydrocotyle microphylla A.Cunn.
Hydrocotyle moschata G. Forst. — musky marshpennywort
Hydrocotyle nepalensis Hook.
Hydrocotyle novae-zelandiae DC.
Hydrocotyle phoenix A.J. Perkins — fire pennywort
Hydrocotyle prolifera Kellogg — whorled marshpennywort
Hydrocotyle pseudoconferta
Hydrocotyle pusilla A. Rich. — tropical marshpennywort
Hydrocotyle ramiflora
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L. f. — floating marshpennywort, floating marshpennywort, floating pennyroyal
Hydrocotyle salwinica
Hydrocotyle setulosa Hayata
Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. — lawn marshpennywort
Hydrocotyle tambalomaensis
Hydrocotyle tripartita
Hydrocotyle umbellata L. — manyflower marshpennywort, umbrella pennyroyal
Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb. — whorled marshpennywort, whorled marshpennywort, whorled pennyroyal
Hydrocotyle vulgaris L. — marsh pennywort, common pennywort
Hydrocotyle wilfordii
Hydrocotyle wilsonii
Hydrocotyle yanghuangensis


Hydrocotyleae grow in wet and damp places in the tropics and the temperate zones.[6]
Fossil record

One fossil fruit of a Hydrocotyle sp. has been extracted from borehole samples of the Middle Miocene fresh water deposits in Nowy Sacz Basin, West Carpathians, Poland.[16]

"Hydrocotyle L." African Plants Database. South African National Biodiversity Institute, the Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève and Tela Botanica. Retrieved 2008-04-25.[permanent dead link]
Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). "Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Genus Hydrocotyle L." The PLANTS Database. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (2006-04-02). "Genus: Hydrocotyle L." Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Archived from the original on 2009-05-08. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
University of Florida Herbarium (2005). "Hydrocotyle species". Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plant Particulars and Photographs. University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. Archived from the original on 2008-04-20. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
M. Grieve (1931). "Hydrocotyle". A Modern Herbal. © Copyright Protected 1995-2008 Retrieved 2008-04-25.
Flora of China. "Hydrocotyle Linn". Family List. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
Aluka. "Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. [family UMBELLIFERAE]". African Plants. Ithaka Harbors, Inc. Retrieved 2008-04-25.[permanent dead link]
Klein, Alecsandro Schardosim; Citadini-Zanette, Vanilde; dos Santos, Robson (September 2007). "Florística e estrutura comunitária de restinga herbácea no município de Araranguá, Santa Catarina" (– Scholar search). Biotemas (in Portuguese). 20 (3): 15–26. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
Watson, Mark F. "Hydrocotyle L". Flora of Bhutan. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
Flora of China. "1. Hydrocotyle Linnaeus". Family List. 14. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
"Pennywort, Genus Hydrocotyle". The Aquarium Gardener Series. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
Taiwan Plant Names. "Hydrocotyle Linn". Family List. III. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
Madagascar Catalog. "Hydrocotyle L." Genus Page. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
"hydrocotyle" New Zealand Weeds. Massey University: Institute of Natural Resources. Archived from the original on 2008-10-14. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
"Hydrocotyle hydrophila | New Zealand Plant Conservation Network". Retrieved 2017-11-03.
Łańcucka-Środoniowa M.: Macroscopic plant remains from the freshwater Miocene of the Nowy Sącz Basin (West Carpathians, Poland) [Szczątki makroskopowe roślin z miocenu słodkowodnego Kotliny Sądeckiej (Karpaty Zachodnie, Polska)]. Acta Palaeobotanica 1979 20 (1): 3-117.

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