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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Ordo: Ericales

Familia: Sapotaceae
Subfamily: Sapotoideae
Tribus: Sapoteae
Genus: Manilkara
Species: M. adolfi-friederici – M. bequaertii – M. bidentata – M. boivinii – M. bolivarensis – M. butugi – M. capuronii – M. casteelsii – M. cavalcantei – M. celebica – M. chicle – M. concolor – M. dardanoi – M. dawei – M. decrescens – M. discolor – M. dissecta – M. doeringii – M. dukensis – M. elata – M. excelsa – M. excisa – M. fasciculata – M. fischeri – M. fouilloyana – M. frondosa – M. gonavensis – M. hexandra – M. hoshinoi – M. huberi – M. ilendensis – M. inundata – M. jaimiqui – M. kanosiensis – M. kauki – M. koechlinii – M. kribensis – M. kurziana – M. le-testui – M. letouzei – M. littoralis – M. longifolia – M. longistyla – M. lososiana – M. mabokeensis – M. maxima – M. mayarensis – M. microphylla – M. mochisia – M. multifida – M. nicholsonii – M. obovata – M. paraensis – M. pellegriniana – M. perrieri – M. pleeana – M. pobeguinii – M. pubicarpa – M. roxburghiana – M. rufula – M. sahafarensis – M. salzmannii – M. samoensis – M. sansibarensis – M. seretii – M. sideroxylon – M. smithiana – M. spectabilis – M. staminodella – M. suarezensis – M. subsericea – M. sulcata – M. sylvestris – M. triflora – M. udoido – M. valenzuelana – M. vitiensis – M. zapota – M. zenkeri


Manilkara Adans. , Fam. Pl. 2: 166 (1763), nom. cons. nom. et typ. cons. against Achras L. (1753) and Sapota Mill. (1754)

Type species: Manilkara kauki (L.) Dubard, Ann. Mus. Colon. Marseille, sér. 3, 3: 9 (1915)


Achras L., Sp. Pl.: 1190 (1753), nom. rej.
Sapota Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4: s.p. (1754), nom. rej.
Stisseria Scop., Intr. Hist. Nat.: 199 (1777), nom. illeg.
Hornschuchia Spreng., Neue Entdeck. Pflanzenk. 3: 64 (1822)
Synarrhena Fisch. & C.A.Mey., Bull. Sci. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 8: 255 (1841)
Eichleria M.M.Hartog, J. Bot. 16: 72 (1878)
Muriea M.M.Hartog, J. Bot. 16: 145 (1878)
Mahea Pierre ex L.Planch., Étude Sapot.: 26 (1888)
Northiopsis Kaneh., Fl. Micron.: 302 (1933)
Shaferodendron Gilly, Trop. Woods 71: 3 (1942)
Murianthe (Baill.) Aubrév., Adansonia, n.s., 3: 22 (1963)
Abebaia Baehni, Arch. Sci. 17(1): 78 (1964)
Nispero Aubrév., Adansonia, n.s., 5: 19 (1965)
Manilkariopsis (Gilly) Lundell, Wrightia 5: 172 (1975)
Chiclea Lundell, Wrightia 5: 221 (1976)
Mopania Lundell, Wrightia 6: 19 (1978)


Adanson, M. (1763) Familles des Plantes 2: 166, 574. BHL
Govaerts, R. et al. 2015. Manilkara in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2015 Feb. 17. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2015. Manilkara. Published online. Accessed: Feb. 17 2015. 2015. Manilkara. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2015 Feb. 17.
USDA, NRCS. 2007. The PLANTS Database (, 2 June 2007). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
Manilkara – Taxon details on Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).

Manilkara is a genus of trees in the family Sapotaceae. They are widespread in tropical and semitropical locations, in Africa, Madagascar, Asia, Australia, and Latin America, as well as various islands in the Pacific and in the Caribbean.[4] A close relative is the genus Pouteria.

Trees of this genus yield edible fruit, useful wood, and latex. The best-known species are M. bidentata (balatá), M. chicle (chicle) and M. zapota (sapodilla). M. hexandra is the floral emblem of Prachuap Khiri Khan Province in Thailand, where it is known as rayan. M. obovata shares the vernacular name of African pear with another completely different species, Dacryodes edulis, and neither should be confused with Baillonella toxisperma, known by the very similar name, African pearwood.

The generic name, Manilkara, is derived from manil-kara, a vernacular name for M. kauki in Malayalam.[5]

Manilkara trees are often significant, or even dominant species in their native ecosystems, such as East Deccan dry evergreen forests, Central American premontane tropical wet forests, or together with Cynometra, in the Arabuko Sokoke National Park.

Manilkara fruit are an important food item for various frugivores, in particular birds. The red fruit bat (Stenoderma rufum) is the primary – and possibly the only – seed disperser of M. bidentata in parts of the Caribbean. Tuckerella xiamenensis, a species of peacock mite, was described from a sapodilla tree.

Several species are endangered due to overexploitation and habitat destruction. M. gonavensis of Haiti and M. spectabilis of Costa Rica are almost extinct.
Selected species

These species are among those included in the genus Manilkara:[6][7][8]

Manilkara adolfo-friederici (Engl. & K.Krause) H.J.Lam
Manilkara altissima (Engl.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara amazonica (Huber) Standl.
Manilkara angolensis Lecomte ex Pellegr.
Manilkara argentea Pierre ex Dubard
Manilkara aubrevillei Sillans
Manilkara balata (Aubl.) Dubard
Manilkara bella Monach.
Manilkara bequaertii (De Wild.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara bidentata (A.DC.) A.Chev. – balatá, ausubo, bulletwood, massaranduba, cow-tree or purple-heart
Manilkara boivinii Aubrév.
Manilkara bojeri (A.DC.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara bolivarensis T.D.Penn.
Manilkara breviloba Gilly
Manilkara butugi Chiov.
Manilkara calcicola (Pittier) Gilly
Manilkara calderonii Gilly
Manilkara calophylloides H.J.Lam
Manilkara capuronii Aubrév.
Manilkara casteelsii (De Wild.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara cavalcantei Pires & Rodrigues ex T.D.Penn.
Manilkara chicle (Pittier) Gilly – chicle
Manilkara concolor (Harv. ex C.H.Wr.) Gerstn.
Manilkara celebica H.J.Lam
Manilkara conzattii Gilly
Manilkara cordifolia P.Royen
Manilkara costata Dubard
Manilkara cuneifolia Dubard
Manilkara dardanoi Ducke
Manilkara darienensis (Pittier) Standl.
Manilkara dawei (Stapf) Chiov.
Manilkara decrescens T.D.Penn
Manilkara discolor (Sond.) J.H.Hemsl.
Manilkara dissecta Dubard
Manilkara doeringii (Engl. & K.Krause) H.J.Lam
Manilkara duckei Monach.
Manilkara dukensis (Engl. & K.Krause) H.J.Lam
Manilkara duplicata (Sessé & Moc.) Dubard
Manilkara eickii (Engl.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara elata (Allemão ex Miq.) Monach.
Manilkara excelsa (Ducke) Standl.
Manilkara excisa (Urb.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara fasciculata (Warb.) H.J.Lam & Maas Geester.
Manilkara fischeri (Engl.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara floribunda (Mart.) Dubard
Manilkara fouilloyana Aubrév. & Pellegr.
Manilkara frondosa (Hiern) H.J.Lam
Manilkara gaumeri Gilly
Manilkara gonavensis (Urb. & Ekman) Gilly ex Cronquist
Manilkara grisebachii (Pierre) Dubard
Manilkara guillotii (Hochr.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard – palai, palu or rayan
Manilkara hoshinoi (Kaneh.) P.Royen
Manilkara howardii Gilly
Manilkara huberi (Ducke) A.Chev.
Manilkara ilendensis (Engl.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara inundata (Ducke) Ducke ex Monach.
Manilkara jaimiqui (C.Wright) Dubard – wild dilly
Manilkara kanosiensis H.J.Lam & B.Meeuse – torem or sawai
Manilkara kauki (L.) Dubard – caqui or wongi
Manilkara koechlinii Aubrév. & Pellegr.
Manilkara kribensis (Engl.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara kurziana H.J.Lam & B.Meeuse
Manilkara lacera Dubard
Manilkara laciniata (Lecomte) P.Royen
Manilkara letestui Aubrév. & Pellegr.
Manilkara letouzei Aubrév.
Manilkara littoralis Dubard

Manilkara longiciliata Ducke
Manilkara longifolia (A.DC.) Dubard
Manilkara longistyla (De Wild.) C.M.Evrard
Manilkara lososiana Kenfack & Ewango
Manilkara mabokeensis Aubrév.
Manilkara macaulayae (Hutch. & Corbishly) H.J.Lam
Manilkara maclaudii Pierre ex Lecomte
Manilkara matanou Aubrév. & Pellegr.
Manilkara maxima T.D.Penn
Manilkara mayarensis (Ekman ex Urb.) Cronquist
Manilkara menyhartii (Engl.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara meridionalis Gilly
Manilkara microphylla Aubrév. & Pellegr.
Manilkara mochisia (Bak.) Dubard
Manilkara multifida T.D.Penn
Manilkara multinervis Dubard
Manilkara napali P.Royen
Manilkara natalensis Dubard
Manilkara nato-lahyensis P.Royen
Manilkara nicholsonii A.E.van Wyk
Manilkara nitida (Sessé & Moc.) Dubard
Manilkara obovata (Sabine & G.Don) J.H.Hemsl. – African pear
Manilkara pancheri Dubard
Manilkara paraensis (Huber) Standl.
Manilkara pleeana (Pierre ex Baill.) Cronquist
Manilkara pellegriniana Tisserant & Sillans
Manilkara perrieri Aubrév.
Manilkara pobeguinii Pierre ex Dubard
Manilkara propinqua (S.Moore) H.J.Lam
Manilkara pubicarpa Monach.
Manilkara remotifolia Pierre ex Dubard
Manilkara rojasii Gilly
Manilkara roxburghiana (Wight) Dubard
Manilkara rufula (Miq.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara sahafarensis Aubrév.
Manilkara salzmannii (A.DC.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara samoensis H.J.Lam & B.Meeuse
Manilkara schweinfurthii Dubard
Manilkara seretii (De Wild.) H.J.Lam
Manilkara sideroxylon (Hook.) Dubard
Manilkara siqueiraei Ducke
Manilkara smithiana H.J.Lam & Maas Geester.
Manilkara sohihy Aubrév.
Manilkara spectabilis (Pittier) Standl.
Manilkara spiculosa (Hutch. & Corbishly) H.J.Lam
Manilkara staminodella Gilly
Manilkara striata Gilly
Manilkara suarezensis Aubrév.
Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard
Manilkara sulcata Dubard
Manilkara surinamensis (Miq.) Dubard
Manilkara sylvestris Aubrév. & Pellegr.
Manilkara tabogaensis Gilly
Manilkara tampoloensis Aubrév.
Manilkara teysmanni Dubard
Manilkara thouvenotii (Lecomte) P.Royen
Manilkara triflora (Allemão) Monach.
Manilkara udoido Kaneh.
Manilkara umbraculigera (Hutch. & Corbishly) H.J.Lam
Manilkara valenzuelana (A.Rich.) T.D.Penn.
Manilkara vitiensis (H.J.Lam & v.Olden) B.Meeuse
Manilkara welwitschii Dubard
Manilkara williamsii Standl.
Manilkara wrightiana (Pierre) Dubard
Manilkara zanzibarensis Dubard
Manilkara zapota (L.) P.Royen – sapodilla, sapota, sapoti or dilly (Bahamas), naseberry (Caribbean), chico, chiku, ciku, snake fruit, níspero, nipero, mespel
Manilkara zenkeri Lecomte ex Aubrév. & Pellegr.
Manilkara zapota plant in Tamil Nadu, India
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Manilkara.
Wikispecies has information related to Manilkara.

Fam. Pl. (Adanson) 2: 166, 574. 1763 [Jul-Aug 1763] "Plant Name Details for Genus Manilkara". IPNI. Retrieved December 23, 2009. "Nomenclatural Notes: nom. cons. Type Name: M. kauki (Linnaeus) Dubard (Mimusops kauki Linnaeus) (typ. cons.) ; basionym of: Sapotaceae Mimusops subgen. Manilkara (Adans.) Pierre & Urb., Symb. Antill. (Urban). 5: 162. 1904"
GRIN (March 31, 2009). "Achras information from NPGS/GRIN". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Archived from the original on November 1, 2012. Retrieved December 23, 2009. "Comment: a rejected (nom. rej.), heterotypic synonym (Vienna ICBN Art. 14.4 & App. III) of Manilkara Adans., nom. cons."
Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4. [unpaged]. 1754 [28 Jan 1754] "Plant Name Details for Genus Sapota". IPNI. Retrieved December 23, 2009. "Nomenclatural Notes: nom. illeg. nom. superfl. Achras Linnaeus (1753)."
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. III: M-Q. CRC Press. p. 1609. ISBN 978-0-8493-2677-6.
GRIN. "Species in GRIN for genus Manilkara". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
M. obovata listed in Mabberley's The Plant Book and also at Encyclopedia of Life
"Query Results for Genus Manilkara". IPNI. Retrieved December 24, 2009.

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