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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fabales

Familia: Fabaceae
Subfamilia: Caesalpinioideae
Tribus: Caesalpinieae
Genus: Parkinsonia
Species: P. aculeata – P. africana – P. anacantha – P. andicola – P. × carterae – P. florida – P. microphylla – P. peruviana – P. praecox – P. raimondoi – P. scioana – P. × sonorae – P. texana
Source(s) of checklist:

Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Parkinsonia L. in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Jul 21. Reference page.

Name

Parkinsonia Plum. ex L.,

Type species: P. aculeata L.

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Cercidiopsis Britton & Rose, N. Amer. Fl. 23(5): 306. 1930.
Type species: C. microphylla Britton & Rose
Cercidium Tul., Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. 4: 133. 1844.
Type species: C. spinosum Tul.
Peltophoropsis Chiov., Ann. Bot. (Rome) 13: 385. 1915.
Type species: P. sciona Chiov.
Rhetinophloeum H.Karst., Fl. Columbiae 2: 25. 1862.
Type species: R. viride H.Karst.

Notes
Homonyms

Cercidium P.A.Dang. (1888) = Chlorogonium Ehrenb.

References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas. Tomus I. Pp. [I–XII], 1–560. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae [Stockholm]. BHL Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Parkinsonia L. in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Jul 21. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Parkinsonia L.. Published online. Accessed: Jul 21 2019.
Tropicos.org 2019. Parkinsonia L.. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Jul 21.
Hassler, M. Jul. Parkinsonia L.. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. Jul. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: Jul 21 {{{3}}}. Reference page.
Farr, E.R. & Zijlstra, G. (eds.) 1996 onwards. Parkinsonia L. in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Accessed: 2012 Feb 13.

Vernacular names
العربية: باركنسونية
čeština: Parkinsonie
Deutsch: Parkinsonien
English: paloverde
português: Cercidium
svenska: Jerusalemtörnesläktet
Tiếng Việt: Chi Kim tước chi
中文: 扁轴木属

Parkinsonia /ˌpɑːrkɪnˈsoʊniə/, also Cercidium /sərˈsɪdiəm/,[3] is a genus of flowering plants in the pea family, Fabaceae. It contains about 12 species that are native to semi-desert regions of Africa and the Americas. The name of the genus honors English apothecary and botanist John Parkinson (1567–1650).[4]

They are large shrubs or small trees growing to 5–12 m (16–39 ft) tall, dry season deciduous, with sparse, open, thorny crowns and green bark. The leaves are pinnate, sometimes bipinnate, with numerous small leaflets; they are only borne for a relatively short time after rains, with much of the photosynthesis carried out by the green twigs and branches. The flowers are symmetrical or nearly so, with five yellow or white petals. The fruit is a pod containing several seeds.

Most American species are known by the common name of palo verde or paloverde, from the Spanish words meaning "green pole" or "green stick". This name is derived from its characteristic green trunk. The palo verde (not species-specific) is the state tree of Arizona.[5]

Ecology

A major pollinator for Parkinsonia species in the southwestern United States and western Mexico is Centris pallida, a solitary bee known as the digger or pallid bee. C. pallida obtains nectar and pollen from this plant to fill a brood pot so that their larvae will have food when they hatch. The nectar and pollen give its bee bread a strong orange color.[6]
Selected species

Parkinsonia aculeata L. – Mexican palo verde (Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts of the United States and Mexico and southward to Argentina; Galápagos Islands)
Parkinsonia africana Sond. (Botswana, Namibia, South Africa)
Parkinsonia anacantha Brenan (Kenya)
Parkinsonia andicola (Griseb.) S.Watson (syn. Cercidium andicola)
Parkinsonia carterae (Western Mexico south to Ecuador)
Parkinsonia florida (Benth. ex A.Gray) S.Watson (syn. Cercidium floridum) – blue palo verde (Southern California, Arizona, northwestern Mexico)
Parkinsonia microphylla Torr. (syn. Cercidium microphyllum) – foothill palo verde (Southern California, Arizona, northwestern Mexico)
Parkinsonia praecox (Ruiz & Pav.) J.A.Hawkins (syn. Cercidium praecox) – brea, verde olivo (Northwest Mexico and South America - south to Argentina)
Parkinsonia raimondoi Brenan (Somalia)
Parkinsonia scioana (Chiov.) Brenan (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya)
Parkinsonia texana (A.Gray) S.Watson (syn. Cercidium texanum) – Texas palo verde (Texas, northeastern Mexico)
Parkinsonia texana var. macra (I.M.Johnst.) Isely
Parkinsonia texana var. texana[7][8][9]

References

"Parkinsonia L." TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
"Genus: Parkinsonia L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2000-04-07. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology. III: M-Q. p. 1966. ISBN 978-0-8493-2673-8.
"Arizona State Tree". Retrieved 2014-03-21.
"Female Digger Bees | ASU - Ask A Biologist". askabiologist.asu.edu. Retrieved 2015-11-06.
"GRIN Species records of Parkinsonia". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2008-10-14. Retrieved 2011-04-25.
"Subordinate taxa of Parkinsonia L." TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2010-02-11.

"Parkinsonia". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2011-04-25.

ILDIS Legume index: Parkinsonia

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