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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fabales

Familia: Fabaceae
Subfamilia: Caesalpinioideae
Tribus: AcacieaeCaesalpinieaeCassieaeTachigalieae
Tribus: Cassieae - Caesalpinieae - Cercideae -

Overview of genera

Caesalpinioideae s.s.: AcrocarpusArapatiellaArcoaArquitaBalsamocarponBatesiaBiancaeaBurkeaBusseaCaesalpiniaCampsiandraCassiaCenostigmaCeratonia – Chamaecrista – Colvillea – ConzattiaCordeauxiaCoulteriaDelonixDenisophytumDimorphandraDiptychandraErythrophleumErythrostemonGelrebiaGleditsiaGuilandina – Gymnocladus – Haematoxylum – Hererolandia – Heteroflorum – Hoffmannseggia – Hultholia – Jacqueshuberia – Lemuropisum – Libidibia – Lophocarpinia – Melanoxylum – Mezoneuron – Moldenhawera – Mora – Moullava – Orphanodendron – Pachyelasma – Parkinsonia – Paubrasilia – Peltophorum – Poeppigia – Pomaria – Pterogyne – Pterolobium – Recordoxylon – Schizolobium – Senna – Stachyothyrsus – Stahlia – Stenodrepanum – Stuhlmannia – Sympetalandra – Tachigali – Tara – Tetrapterocarpon – Umtiza – Vouacapoua – Zuccagnia

The mimosoid clade: AbaremaAcacia – Acaciella – AdenantheraAdenopodiaAlantsilodendronAlbiziaAmblygonocarpusAnadenantheraArchidendronArchidendropsisAubrevilleaBaliziaBlanchetiodendronCalliandraCalliandropsisCalpocalyxCathormion – Cedrelinga – Chidlowia – Chloroleucon – Cojoba – Cylicodiscus – Desmanthus – Dichrostachys – Dinizia – Ebenopsis – Elephantorrhiza – Entada – Enterolobium – Faidherbia – Falcataria – Fillaeopsis – Gagnebina – Guinetia – Havardia – Hesperalbizia – Hydrochorea – Indopiptadenia – Inga – Kanaloa – Lachesiodendron – Lemurodendron – Leucaena – Leucochloron – Lysiloma – Macrosamanea – Mariosousa – Marmaroxylon – Microlobius – Mimosa – Mimozyganthus – Neptunia – Newtonia – Painteria – Parapiptadenia – Pararchidendron – Parasenegalia – Paraserianthes – Parkia – Pentaclethra – Piptadenia – Piptadeniastrum – Piptadeniopsis – Pithecellobium – Pityrocarpa – Plathymenia – Prosopidastrum – Prosopis – Pseudopiptadenia – Pseudoprosopis – Pseudosamanea – Pseudosenegalia – Samanea – Schleinitzia – Senegalia – Serianthes – Sphinga – Stryphnodendron – Tetrapleura – Thailentadopsis – Vachellia – Viguieranthus – Wallaceodendron – Xerocladia – Xylia – Zapoteca – Zygia

Caesalpinioideae DC. Prodr. 2: 473. (1825)

Type genus: Caesalpinia L. Sp. Pl. 1: 380 (1753)


Caesalpinieae Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs. 2(2): 544. (1832)
Cassioideae Burmeist., Handb. Naturgesch.: 319. (1837) (“Cassieae”)
Cassieae Bronn Form. Pl. Legumin. 78, 127, 130. (1822)
Type: Cassia L., nom. cons.
Ceratonieae Rchb. (1832)
Dimorphandreae Benth. (1840)
Sclerolobieae Benth. (1865)
Moreae Britton & Rose (1930)
Mimosoideae DC., Prodr. 2: 424. (1825)
Mimoseae Bronn (1822)
Type: Mimosa L.
Parkieae (Wight & Arn.) Endl.
Adenanthereae (Benth.) Benth. & Hook.f.
Piptadenieae Benth
Mimozygantheae Burkart (1939)

Note: See Discussion Page, but it is too early to place Dimorphandreae and Mimoseae here as distinct tribes (Stevens, 2020), as the clade phylogeny have yet to produce a workable taxonomy.

De Candolle, A.P. 1825. Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 2: 473. BHL
Bruneau, A., Mercure, M., Lewis, G.P. & Herendeen, P.S. 2008. Phylogenetic patterns and diversification in the caesalpinioid legumes. Botany 86(7): 697–718. Abstract Reference page.
Fougere Danezan, M., Maumont, S. & Bruneau, A. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships in resin-producing Detarieae inferred from molecular data and preliminary results for a biogeographic hypothesis. Advances in Legume Systematics 10: 161–180.
Gagnon, E., Lewis, G.P., Sotuyo, J.S., Hughes, C.E. & Bruneau, A. 2013. A molecular phylogeny of Caesalpinia sensu lato: Increased sampling reveals new insights and more genera than expected. South African Journal of Botany 89: 111–127. DOI: 10.1016/j.sajb.2013.07.027 Open access. Reference page.
Gagnon, E., Bruneau, A., Hughes, C.E., de Queiroz, L.P. & Lewis, G.P. 2016. A new generic system for the pantropical Caesalpinia group (Leguminosae). PhytoKeys 71: 1–160. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.71.9203 Full text HTML Reference page.
Herendeen, P.S., Bruneau, A. & Lewis, G.P. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships in caesalpinioid legumes: a preliminary analysis based on morphological and molecular data. Advances in Legume Systematics 10: 37–62.
Legume Phylogeny Working Group 2017. A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny. Taxon 66(1): 44–77. DOI: 10.12705/661.3 PDF. Reference page.
Luckow, M., Miller, J.T., Murphy, D.J. & Livshultz, T. 2003. A phylogenetic analysis of the Mimosoideae (Leguminosae) based on chloroplast DNA sequence data. Advances in Legume Systematics, part, 10, pp.197-220. Full text from ResearchGate Reference page.
Manzanilla, V. & Bruneau, A. 2012. Phylogeny reconstruction in the Caesalpinieae grade (Leguminosae) based on duplicated copies of the sucrose synthase gene and plastid markers. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65(1): 149–162. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2012.05.035 Full text PDF from ResearchGate Reference page.
Miller, J.T. Terra, V., Riggins, C., Ebinger, J.E. & Seigler, D.S. 2017. Molecular Phylogenetics of Parasenegalia and Pseudosenegalia (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae). Systematic Botany 42(3): 465-469. DOI: 10.1600/036364417X696140 Reference page.
Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Цэзальпініевыя
Deutsch: Johannisbrotgewächse
македонски: Рогачовидни
русский: Цезальпиновые
українська: Цезальпінієві

Caesalpinioideae is a botanical name at the rank of subfamily, placed in the large family Fabaceae or Leguminosae. Its name is formed from the generic name Caesalpinia. It is known also as the peacock flower subfamily.[4] The Caesalpinioideae are mainly trees distributed in the moist tropics, but include such temperate species as the honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos) and Kentucky coffeetree (Gymnocladus dioicus). It has the following clade-based definition:

The most inclusive crown clade containing Arcoa gonavensis Urb. and Mimosa pudica L., but not Bobgunnia fistuloides (Harms) J. H. Kirkbr. & Wiersema, Duparquetia orchidacea Baill., or Poeppigia procera C.Presl[5]

In some classifications, for example the Cronquist system, the group is recognized at the rank of family, Caesalpiniaceae.

Distinguishing characters:

Specialised extrafloral nectaries often present on the petiole and / or on the primary and secondary rachises, usually between pinnae or leaflet pairs
Leaves commonly bipinnate
Inflorescences globose, spicate
Aestivation valvate
Anthers often with a stipitate or sessile apical gland
Pollen commonly in tetrads, bitetrads or polyads
Seeds usually with an open or closed pleurogram on both faces
Root nodules variably present and indeterminate


Caesalpinieae Clade

Main article: Caesalpinieae

Cassieae Clade
Batesia Spruce
Cassia L.
Chamaecrista Moench
Melanoxylum Schott
Recordoxylon Ducke
Senna Mill.
Vouacapoua Aubl.
Dimorphandra Group A
Burkea Benth.
Campsiandra Benth.
Dimorphandra Schott pro parte
Dinizia Ducke
Mora Benth.
Stachyothyrsus Harms
Dimorphandra Group B
Dimorphandra Schott pro parte
Diptychandra Tul.
Erythrophleum Afzel. ex R.Br.
Moldenhawera Schrad.
Pachyelasma Harms
Sympetalandra Stapf
Mimosoid clade (~40 genera)
Peltophorum Clade
Bussea Harms
Colvillea Bojer ex Hook.
Conzattia Rose
Delonix Raf.
Heteroflorum M. Sousa
Lemuropisum H.Perrier
Parkinsonia L.
Peltophorum (Vogel) Benth.
Schizolobium Vogel
Tachigali Clade
Arapatiella Rizzini & A.Mattos
Jacqueshuberia Ducke
Sclerolobium Vogel
Tachigali Aubl.
Umtiza Clade
Acrocarpus Wight & Arn.
Arcoa Urb.
Ceratonia L.
Gleditsia L.
Gymnocladus Lam.
Tetrapterocarpon Humbert
Umtiza Sim
Pterogyne Tul.


Caesalpinioideae, as it was traditionally circumscribed, was paraphyletic. Several molecular phylogenies in the early 2000s showed that the other two subfamilies of Fabaceae (Faboideae and Mimosoideae) were both nested within Caesalpinioideae.[6][7][8][9] Consequently, the subfamilies of Fabaceae were reorganized to make them monophyletic.[5] Caesalpinioideae, as currently defined, contains the following subclades:[5]


Faboideae (outgroup)


Umtiza clade

Caesalpinieae clade

Cassieae clade


Dimorphandra group A

Tachigali clade

Peltophorum clade

Dimorphandra group B (including the mimosoid clade)


Marazzi B, Ané C, Simon MF, Delgado-Salinas A, Luckow M, Sanderson MJ (2012). "Locating evolutionary precursors on a phylogenetic tree". Evolution. 66 (12): 3918–3930. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01720.x. PMID 23206146. S2CID 8336248.
Doyle JJ (2011). "Phylogenetic perspectives on the origins of nodulation". Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 24 (11): 1289–1295. doi:10.1094/MPMI-05-11-0114. PMID 21995796.
Doyle JJ (2012). "Polyploidy in legumes". In Soltis PS, Soltis DE (eds.). Polyploidy and genome evolution. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 147–180. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-31442-1_9. ISBN 978-3-642-31441-4.
"Flowers in Singapore".
The Legume Phylogeny Working Group (LPWG). (2017). "A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny". Taxon. 66 (1): 44–77. doi:10.12705/661.3.
Bruneau A, Forest F, Herendeen PS, Klitgaard BB, Lewis GP (2001). "Phylogenetic Relationships in the Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae) as Inferred from Chloroplast trnL Intron Sequences". Syst Bot. 26 (3): 487–514. doi:10.1043/0363-6445-26.3.487 (inactive 31 May 2021).
Bruneau A, Mercure M, Lewis GP, Herendeen PS (2008). "Phylogenetic patterns and diversification in the caesalpinioid legumes". Botany. 86 (7): 697–718. doi:10.1139/B08-058.
Manzanilla V, Bruneau A (2012). "Phylogeny reconstruction in the Caesalpinieae grade (Leguminosae) based on duplicated copies of the sucrose synthase gene and plastid markers". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 65 (1): 149–162. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2012.05.035. PMID 22699157.
Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wykd B-E, Wojciechowskie MF, Lavin M (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S. Afr. J. Bot. 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001.

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