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Trifolium alexandrinum

Trifolium alexandrinum

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fabales

Familia: Fabaceae
Subfamilia: Faboideae
Tribus: Trifolieae
Genus: Trifolium
Subgenus: T. subg. Trifolium
Sectio: T. sect. Trifolium

Species: Trifolium alexandrinum

Trifolium alexandrinum L., Cent. Pl. I. 25 (1755)

Trifolium albiceps Ehrenb. ex Sweet
Trifolium alexandrium, orth. var.
Trifolium alexandrinum subsp. serotinum (Zohary & Lerner) P.Silva, Agron. Lusit., 35(4): 299 (1974), nom. illeg.
Trifolium alexandrinum var. madarensae Kozuharov, Fl. Nar. Republ. Bulgariya, 6: 560 (1976)
Trifolium alexandrinum var. serotinum Zohary & Lerner, Fl. Palaestina, 2: 45 7 (1972), nom. illeg.

Native distribution areas:
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1755. Centuria I. Plantarum. Upsaliae, exc. L.M. Höjer. BHL Reference page. : 25

Additional references

Abdalla, M.M.F., El-Naby Zeinab, M.A. 2012. Inbreeding and fertility in Egyptian clover, Trifolium alexandrinum. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy 4(2): 16–25. DOI: 10.5897/JPP11.060
Zohary, M. & Heller, D. 1984. The genus Trifolium. Jerusalem: The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. ISBN 965-208-056-X Reference page.
(Amoen. acad. 4: 286 (1759))


Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Trifolium alexandrinum in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 14. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Trifolium alexandrinum. Published online. Accessed: Jun 14 2021. 2021. Trifolium alexandrinum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 14.
Hassler, M. 2021. Trifolium alexandrinum. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 14. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. . Trifolium alexandrinum. Accessed: 14 Jun 2021.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Trifolium alexandrinum in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 28-Oct-07.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Ägyptischer Klee
Ελληνικά: Τριφύλλι το Αλεξανδρινό, Τριφύλλιον το Αλεξανδρινόν
English: Berseem clover, Egyptian clover
suomi: Egyptinapila
français: Trèfle d'Alexandrie
Nederlands: Alexandrijnse klaver
Türkçe: Mısır üçgülü

Trifolium alexandrinum (Egyptian clover, berseem clover)[1] is an annual clover cultivated mostly in irrigated sub-tropical regions, and used as leguminous crop. It is an important winter crop in Egypt, where it may have been cultivated since ancient times,[2][3] and was introduced into northern India in the early nineteenth century. It is also grown in the United States and Europe.

The plant reaches 30 to 100 cm (12 to 39 in) tall with erect or ascending stems. There are two types of berseem clover, single-cut and multi-cut. Single-cut varieties, like Balady, feature a high growing point and feature poor recovery once harvested. Multi-cut varieties, like Frosty, feature a lower growing point allowing for multiple harvests from a single sowing.

Berseem clover is generally frost-sensitive and should be planted only after potential for frost has passed. The exception is Frosty berseem clover which was developed by Grassland Oregon, Inc. and released in 2016. This variety is capable of surviving temperatures as low as 5 degrees Fahrenheit.[4]

Forage - Berseem clover is capable of producing up to 8 tons of forage in a single growing season.[5] Berseem clover is similar in forage quality to that of alfalfa.

Green Manure - Berseem clover can also be used as a cover crop suppressing weeds or as a green manure crop providing nitrogen to following crops. As a green manure crop, berseem is capable of providing as much as 280 lbs./acre of nitrogen to following crops.[6]
Berseem as Fodder

Berseem provides highly nutritious and tasty fodder for livestock in winter season in repeated cuttings. It contains 17% crude protein, 25.9% crude fiber and 60-65% TDN (Total Digestible Nutrients) content.[7] Berseem needs a mild temperature to germinate and further establishment. Its growth is restricted during severe cold or frosty weather. It grows well on medium to heavy soils and resists salinity.

"Trifolium alexandrinum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 26 April 2011.
Muhammad, Dost; Misri, Bimal; El-Nahrawy, Mohamed; Khan, Sartaj; Serkan, Ates (2014). Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) (PDF). Cairo: FAO Regional Office for the Near East and North Africa. ISBN 9785-108008-5-92.
Oushy, Hamdy (2008). "USAID Fact Sheet: Berseem Clover" (PDF).
"Cold Tolerant Berseem Clover Provides Frost Seeding Option". AgNewsWire. 2018-01-16. Retrieved 2019-07-06.
"Berseem Clover". Retrieved 2019-07-06.
"Managing cover crops profitably" (PDF).
"Dairy Knowledge".

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