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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladi (2): NepticulinaEulepidoptera


Heteroneura Tillyard, 1918.

van Nieukerken, E.J., Kaila, L., Kitching, I.J., Kristensen, N.P., Lees, D.C., Minet, J., Mitter, C., Mutanen, M., Regier, J.C., Simonsen, T.J., Wahlberg, N., Yen, S-H., Zahiri, R., Adamski, D., Baixeras, J., Bartsch, D., Bengtsson, B.A., Brown, J.W., Bucheli, S.R., Davis, D.R., de Prins, J., de Prins, W., Epstein, M.C., Gentili-Poole, P., Gielis, C., Hättenschwiler, P., Hausmann, A., Holloway, J.D., Kallies, A., Karsholt, O., Kawahara, A.Y., Koster, S., Kozlov, M.V., Lafontaine, J.D., Lamas, G., Landry, J-F., Lee, S., Nuss, M., Park, K-T., Penz, C.M., Rota, J., Schintlmeister, A., Schmidt, B.C., Sohn, J-C., Solis, M.A., Tarmann, G.M., Warren, A.D., Weller, S., Yaklovlev, R.V., Zolotuhin, V.V. & Zwick, A. 2011. Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758. Pp 212–221 In:
Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) 2011. Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 1–237. Open access. Reference page PDF. Reference page.

Vernacular names
français: hétéroneures
中文: 异脉下目Heteroneura is a natural group (or clade) in the insect order Lepidoptera that comprises over 99% of all butterflies and moths.[1] This is the sister group of the infraorder Exoporia (swift moths and their relatives),[2] and is characterised by wing venation which is not similar or homoneurous[3] in both pairs of wings. Though basal groups within the Heteroneura cannot be identified with much confidence,[4] one major subgroup is the leaf-mining Nepticuloidea. Species in this subgroup include some of the smallest lepidoterans identified.[5]

Niels P. Kristensen (1999). Handbuch der Zoologie : eine Naturgeschichte der Stämme des Tierreiches. Bd. 4, Arthropoda : Hälfte 2, Insecta : Teilbd. 35, Lepidoptera, moths and butterflies : Vol. 1. Evolution, systematics, and biogeography. Walter de Gruyter. p. 65. ISBN 978-3-11-015704-8.
Niels Kristensen (1 January 2003). Vol 2: Morphology, Physiology, and Development. Walter de Gruyter. p. 88. ISBN 978-3-11-089372-4.
"Homoneurous - Wiktionary". Retrieved 17 February 2021.
"Variety of Life". Retrieved 17 February 2021.
Grimaldi, David (2005). Evolution of the Insects. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82149-0.[page needed]

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Biology Encyclopedia

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