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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Paraneoptera
Superordo: Condylognatha
Ordo: Hemiptera
Subordo: Heteroptera
Infraordo: Pentatomomorpha
Superfamilia: Pentatomoidea
Familiae (18): Acanthosomatidae - Canopidae - Cydnidae - Dinidoridae - Lestoniidae - Megarididae - Parastrachiidae - Pentatomidae - Phloeidae - Plataspididae - Saileriolidae - Scutelleridae - Tessaratomidae - Thaumastellidae - Thyreocoridae - Urostylididae - †Mesopentacoridae - †Primipentatomidae

Genus incertae sedis: Dismegistus
Name

Pentatomoidea Leach, 1815
References
Primary references

Leach, W.E. 1815. Entomology [pp. 57–172]. In: Brewster, D. (Ed). Brewster’s Edinburgh Encyclopedia. Volume IX [part I]. W. Blackwood, J. Waugh, etc., Edinburgh, 764 pp. BHL Reference page. [p. 121]

Additional references

Davidová-Vilímová, J. & McPherson, J.E. 1991. Pygophores of selected species of Pentatomoidea (Heteroptera) from Illinois. Acta Universitatis Carolinae - biologica 35: 143–183. Reference page.
Derjanschi, V.V. & Péricart, J. 2005. Hémiptères Pentatomoidea Euro-Méditerranéens. Volume 1 : Généralités. Systématique: Prémiere Partie. Faune de France 90: 1–494. Fédération française des sociétés de sciences naturelles, 494 p. ISBN 978-2-903052-38-6 [In French]. Preview. Reference page.
Faúndez, E.I. 2010: Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) wrongly labelled in Gay’s “Atlas de la Historia Física y Política de Chile” (1854). Zootaxa, 2351: 65–68. Preview
Faúndez, E.I.; Carvajal, M.A. 2010: Additions to Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) wrongly labelled in Gay’s “Atlas de la Historia Física y Política de Chile (1854)”. Zootaxa, 2659: 67–68. Preview
Ghahari, H., Moulet, P. & Rider, D.A. 2014. An annotated catalog of the Iranian Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomomorpha). Zootaxa 3837(1): 1–95. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3837.1.1 ResearchGate Open access Reference page.
Grazia, J.; Schuh, R.T.; Wheeler, W.C. 2008: Phylogenetic relationships of family groups in Pentatomoidea based on morphology and DNA sequences (Insecta: Heteroptera). Cladistics, 24 (6): 932–976. DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2008.00224.x PDF
Kment, P.; Vilímová, J. 2010: Thoracic scent efferent system of Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera): a review of terminology. Zootaxa, 2706: 1–77. Preview
Linnavuori, R.E. 2008: Studies on the Acanthosomatidae, Scutelleridae and Pentatomidae (Heteroptera) of Gilan and the adjacent provinces in northern Iran. Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 48(1): 1–21. PDF Reference page.
Lis, J.A. 2010: Coxal combs in the Cydnidae sensu lato and three other related “cydnoid” families – Parastrachiidae, Thaumastellidae, Thyreocoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera): functional, taxonomic, and phylogenetic significance. Zootaxa, 2476: 53–64. Preview
Lis, J.A.; Lis, B. 2011: Is accurate taxon identification important for molecular studies? Several cases of faux pas in pentatomoid bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomoidea). Zootaxa, 2932: 47–50. Preview
Lis, J.A., Ziaja, D.J. & Lis P. 2011. Recovery of mitochondrial DNA for systematic studies of Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera): Successful PCR on early 20th century dry museum specimens. Zootaxa 2748: 18–28. Preview. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.2748.1.2. ResearchGate Paywall. PDF.Reference page.
Lupoli, R. & Dusoulier, F. 2015. Les Punaises Pentatomoidea de France pp.429. Éditions Ancyrosoma. [In French]. ISBN 978-2-9536661-1-3. ResearchGate Paywall Reference page.
Péricart, J. 2010. Hémiptères Pentatomoidea Euro-Méditerranéens. Volume 3 : Podopinae et Asopinae. Faune de France 93: 1–290. Fédération française des sociétés de sciences naturelles, 290 p. ISBN 978-2-903052-32-4 [In French]. Preview. Reference page.
Ribes, J. & Pagola-Carte, S. 2013. Hémiptères Pentatomoidea Euro-Méditerranéens. Volume 2 : Systématique: Deuxième Partie. Faune de France 96: 1–394. Fédération française des sociétés de sciences naturelles, 394 p. ISBN 978-2-903052-35-5 [In French]. Preview. Reference page.
Rider, D.A. 2006. Family Pentatomidae. p. 233–403, In: Aukema, A. & Rieger, C. (eds). Catalogue of the Heteroptera of the Palaearctic Region, vol 5. The Netherlands Entomological Society, Amsterdam. ResearchGate Open access PDF. Reference page.
Rider, D.A., Schwertner, C.F., Davidová-Vilímová, J., Rédei, D., Kment, P. & Thomas, D.B. 2018. Higher systematics of the Pentatomoidea.. p. 25–204, In: McPherson, J.E. (ed). Invasive Stink Bugs and Related Species (Pentatomoidea): Biology, Higher Systematics, Semiochemistry, and Management. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis group. Boca Raton, FL. Reference page.

Vernacular names
Ελληνικά: Βρομούσα
English: Shield bug, chust bug, stink bug
suomi: Typpyluteet
日本語: カメムシ

The Pentatomoidea are a superfamily of insects in the Heteroptera suborder of the Hemiptera order. As Hemiptera, they share a common arrangement of sucking mouthparts.[1] The roughly 7000 species under Pentatomoidea are divided into 21 families (16 extant and 5 extinct).[2][3] Among these are the stink bugs and shield bugs, jewel bugs, giant shield bugs, and burrower bugs.[4]

Description
Anatomy of the dorsal aspect of a shield bug. A: head; B: thorax; C: abdomen. 1: claws; 2: tarsus; 3: tibia; 4: femur; 8: compound eye; 9: antenna; 10: clypeus; 23: laterotergites (connexivum); 25: pronotum; 26: scutellum; 27: clavus; 28: corium; 29: embolium; 30: hemelytral membrane.

The Pentatomoidea are characterised by a well-developed scutellum (the hardened extension of the thorax over the abdomen). It can be triangular to semielliptical in shape.[3] The antennae typically have five segments. The tarsi usually have two or three segments.[5]

Shield bugs have prothoracic glands (in their thoraces, between the first and second pair of legs) that produce a foul-smelling liquid, which is used defensively to deter potential predators and is sometimes released when the bugs are handled. These prothoracic glands are also present in the nymphs, which are similar to adults except smaller and without wings.

The nymphs and adults have distinctive piercing mouthparts, with mandibles and maxillae modified to form a piercing "stylet" sheathed within a modified labium. The stylet is used to suck sap from plants, or in some cases to suck blood from other animals.

Pentatomoidea are mostly phytophagous, although some are hematophagous. They can become significant pests, causing economic damage to certain crops.

Species that resemble pentatomoids are found in the superfamily Coreoidea.
Families

These families are classified under Pentatomoidea:[6]
Extant

Acanthosomatidae Signoret, 1863 – known as shield bugs, contains 46 genera and 184 species found worldwide[7]
Canopidae McAtee & Malloch, 1928 – found strictly in the Neotropical realm[8]
Cydnidae Billberg, 1820 – known as burrowing bugs, it contains 120 genera and about 765 species worldwide.
Dinidoridae Stål, 1867 – found in tropical Asia, Africa, Australia, and South America, composed of 16 genera and about 65 species[3]
Lestoniidae China, 1955 – small, round bugs that bear a resemblance to tortoise beetles (Chrysomelidae), composed only of one genus and two species, endemic to Australia[9]
Megarididae McAtee & Malloch, 1928 – contains only one extant genus (Megaris) and 16 species, small, globular bugs occurring in Central America[10]
Parastrachiidae Oshanin, 1922 – bright red and black bugs exhibiting maternal care of eggs, it contains only two genera: Dismegistus (Africa) and Parastrachia (Eastern Asia).[11][12][13]
Pentatomidae Leach, 1815 – known as stink bugs, it is the largest family in Pentatomoidea. It contains around 900 genera and over 4700 species.[11]
Phloeidae – large mottled brown and flattened bugs found strictly in the Neotropical realm. It is composed on only 2 genera and 3 species. They are known to exhibit strong maternal care.[8]
Plataspidae – found in Asia, particularly eastern Asia, although a few species of Coptosoma occur in the Palearctic. They are round plant-feeding bugs. It has about 59 genera and 560 species.[11]
Saileriolidae - only recently removed from inclusion within Urostylididae.
Scutelleridae – known as jewel bugs or shield-backed bugs. Composed of 81 genera and about 450 species.
Tessaratomidae – known as giant shield bugs because they are usually relatively large. Has about 55 genera and 240 species worldwide (mainly in the Old World tropics).[2][3][14]
Thaumastellidae – small bugs usually found under rocks in tropical Africa and the Middle East. It contains only one genus and three species. There is some debate to their inclusion within Pentatomoidea.[15]
Thyreocoridae Amyot & Serville, 1843 – includes the former family, subfamily Corimelaeninae Uhler, 1872[16] – known as ebony bugs, they are small, oval, shiny black bugs.[17]
Urostylididae – contains about 11 genera and 170 species. They are found in Southern and Eastern Asia.[11] (including Korea).

Extinct

†Mesopentacoridae Popov 1968 Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, Asia
†Primipentatomidae – family with about four Early Cretaceous fossil species from China.[18]
†Probascanionidae Handlirsch 1921 Monotypic, Early Jurassic, Germany
†Protocoridae Handlirsch 1906 Early-Middle Jurassic, Eurasia
†Venicoridae Yao et al. 2012 Early Cretaceous, China

Phylogeny

The morphological unweighted tree of Pentatomoidea after Grazia et al. (2008).[19][20]

      ←      
             

Urostylididae

             
             

Saileriolidae

             
             

Acanthosomatidae

             
             
             

Tessaratomidae

             

Dinidoridae

  Cydnidae sensu lato  
             

Cydnidae

             

Thaumastellidae

             

Parastrachiidae

             
             

Thyreocoridae

             

Lestoniidae

             

Phloeidae

             
             

Scutelleridae

             

Plataspidae

             

Pentatomidae

             

Canopidae

             

Megarididae



See also

List of shield bug species of Korea
Pentatomomorpha
Sunn pest

References

"Hemiptera: bugs, aphids and cicadas". CSIRO. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
Cedric Gillott (1995). Entomology. Springer. p. 604. ISBN 978-0-306-44967-3.
G. Cassis, Australia. Bureau of Flora and Fauna, & Gordon F. Gross (2002). Zoological catalogue of Australia: Hemiptera: Heteroptera (Pentatomomorpha). Csiro Publishing. p. 353. ISBN 978-0-643-06875-9.
Capinera, John L. (2008). Encyclopedia of entomology (2 ed.). Heidelberg: Springer Science & Business Media. p. 608. ISBN 978-1-4020-6242-1.
T. N. Ananthakrishnan (2004). General and applied entomology. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. p. 370. ISBN 978-0-07-043435-6.
David A. Rider (October 20, 2009). "Classification". Department of Entomology, North Dakota State University. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
Faúndez E. I. (2009). "Contribution to the knowledge of the genus Acrophyma Bergroth, 1917 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Acanthosomatidae)". Zootaxa. 2137: 57–65. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2137.1.7.
P220 Randall T. Schuh, James Alexander Slater, True bugs of the world (Hemiptera:Heteroptera): classification and natural history, Cornell University Press, 1995, ISBN 0-8014-2066-0
P136 Christopher G. Morris Academic Press dictionary of science and technology, Gulf Professional Publishing, 1992, ISBN 0-12-200400-0
www.discoverlife.org
Robert G. Foottit, Peter H. Adler Insect Biodiversity: Science and Society, John Wiley and Sons, 2009,ISBN 1-4051-5142-0
Gengping Zhu; Guoqing Liu; Wenjun Bu & Jerzy A. Lis (2013). "Geographic distribution and niche divergence of two stinkbugs, Parastrachia japonensis and Parastrachia nagaensis". Journal of Insect Science. 13 (102): 1–16. doi:10.1673/031.013.10201. PMC 4012745. PMID 24738857.
Jerzy A. Lis (2010). "Pretarsal structures in the family Parastrachiidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomoidea)". Zootaxa. 2693: 60–62. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2693.1.5.
James T. Costa (2006), The other insect societies; Belknap Press Series Harvard University Press, p.311, ISBN 0-674-02163-0
P353 Zoological Catalogue of Australia
David A. Rider, Cristiano Feldens Schwertner, Jitka Vilímová, Dávid Rédei, Petr Kment, Donald B. Thomas (2018) Higher Systematics of the Pentatomoidea. Chapter 2.2.18 in: Invasive Stink Bugs and Related Species (Pentatomoidea): Biology, Higher Systematics, Semiochemistry, and Management. J.E. McPherson, Ed. CRC Press DOI:10.1201/9781315371221-2
Mike Boone (September 11, 2004). "Family Thyreocoridae – Ebony Bugs". BugGuide, Iowa State University. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
Yao, Yunzhi; Cai, Wanzhi; Rider, David A.; Ren, Dong (2013). "Primipentatomidae fam. Nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomomorpha), an extinct insect family from the Cretaceous of north-eastern China". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 11: 63–82. doi:10.1080/14772019.2011.639814. S2CID 86753502.
Dimitri Forero (March 13, 2009). "Pentatomoidea". Tree of Life web project. Retrieved April 28, 2011. {{cite web}}: External link in |publisher= (help)
Jocelia Grazia; Randall T. Schuhb & Ward C. Wheeler (2008). "Phylogenetic relationships of family groups in Pentatomoidea based on morphology and DNA sequences (Insecta: Heteroptera)" (PDF). Cladistics. Wiley-Blackwell. 24 (6): 932–976. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2008.00224.x. PMID 34892882. S2CID 41951432. Retrieved April 27, 2011.

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