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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Paraneoptera
Superordo: Condylognatha
Ordo: Hemiptera
Subordo: Heteroptera
Infraordo: Cimicomorpha
Superfamilia: Tingoidea

Familia: Tingidae
Subfamiliae: CantacaderinaeTinginae – †Tingiometrinae

Genera incertae sedis: †Archetingis – †Burmacader – †Cucullitingis – †Gyaclavator
†Paraphatnomacader
Name

Tingidae Laporte, 1832

Synonyms

Cimicides Latreille, 1807
Geocorises Latreille, 1829
Tingidites Laporte, 1833
Tingidae Westwood, 1840
Tingiditae Spinola, 1852
Tingididae Fieber, 1861
Tingitidea Costa, 1863
Tingitidae Stal, 1873

Vernacular names
العربية: عناجيات
беларуская: каруначніцы
català: tíngids
Deutsch: Netzwanzen oder Gitterwanzen
español: tíngidos
فارسی: نیم‌بالان توری‌دار
suomi: verkkoluteet
français: tingidés
עברית: פשפשיתיים
italiano: tingidi
日本語: グンバイムシ科
ქართული: არშიისებრნი
кыргызча: тордомолор
lietuvių: sietasparnės blakės
latviešu: tīklblaktis
Nederlands: netwantsen
norsk nynorsk: netteger
norsk: netteger
Diné bizaad: Tʼágháhootʼíinii
русский: кружевницы
slovenščina: mrežaste stenice
svenska: nätskinnbaggar eller nätstinkflyn
中文: 网蝽科

The Tingidae are a family of very small (2–10 mm (0.08–0.39 in)) insects in the order Hemiptera that are commonly referred to as lace bugs. This group is distributed worldwide with about 2,000 described species.

They are called lace bugs because the pronotum and fore wings of the adult have a delicate and intricate network of divided areas that resemble lace. Their body appearance is flattened dorsoventrally and they can be broadly oval or slender. Often, the head is concealed under the hood-like pronotum.

Lace bugs are usually host-specific and can be very destructive to plants. Most feed on the undersides of leaves by piercing the epidermis and sucking the sap. The then empty cells give the leaves a bronzed or silvery appearance. Each individual usually completes its entire lifecycle on the same plant, if not the same part of the plant.
Physatocheila smreczynskii

Most species have one to two generations per year, but some species have multiple generations. Most overwinter as adults, but some species overwinter as eggs or nymphs. This group has incomplete metamorphosis in that the immature stages resemble the adults, except that the immatures are smaller and do not have wings. However, wing pads appear in the second and third instars and increase in size as the nymph matures. Depending on the species, lace bugs have four or five instars.
Gargaphia from Oklahoma
from Maryland

Lace bugs sometimes fall out of trees, land on people, and bite, which, although painful, is a minor nuisance. No medical treatment is necessary.[1] There are reports in Europe, e.g., Italy,[2] France[3] and Romania,[4] of Corythucha ciliata biting humans and some people have painful reactions, e.g., dermatosis.

Phylogeny

The phylogenetic relationships of the Miroidea are not well established, with various authors treating the families, and subfamilies, and tribes differently.[5] The phylogeny here follows that of Drake and Ruhoff 1965.[6] While not common in the fossil record, a number of genera and species have been described from both amber and compression fossils, such as Gyaclavator kohlsi from the Eocene Green River formation.[7]

See also

Gargaphia solani – eggplant lacebug
Stephanitis takeyai – andromeda lace bug
†Leptopharsa tacanae - tingid from Mexican amber

References

"Minute Pirate Bug | Nebraska Extension in Lancaster County".
DUTTO, M.; BERTERO, M. (2013). "Dermatosis caused by Corythuca ciliata (Say, 1932) (Heteroptera, Tingidae). Diagnostic and clinical aspects of an unrecognized pseudoparasitosis". Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene. 54 (1): 57–59. ISSN 1121-2233. PMC 4718364. PMID 24397008.
Izri, Arezki; Andriantsoanirina, Valérie; Chosidow, Olivier; Durand, Rémy (2015-08-01). "Dermatosis Caused by Blood-Sucking Corythucha Ciliata". JAMA Dermatology. 151 (8): 909–910. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2015.0577. ISSN 2168-6068. PMID 25970727.
Ciceoi, Roxana; Radulovici, Adriana. "Facultative blood-sucking lace bugs, Corythucha sp., in Romania". researchgate.net. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
A. Nel, A. Waller & G. de Ploëg (2004). "The oldest fossil Tingidae from the Lowermost Eocene amber of the Paris Basin (Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha: Tongoidea)" (PDF). Geologica Acta. 2 (1): 37–43. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-09-21.
Drake, C.J. & Ruhoff, F.A., 1965. Lace-bugs of the world: a catalogue. (Hemiptera: Tingidae). Bulletin of the United States National Museum: 243, 1–643.

Wappler, T.; Guilbert, E.; Labandeira, C.C.; Hörnschemeyer, T.; Wedmann, S. (2015). "Morphological and Behavioral Convergence in Extinct and Extant Bugs: The Systematics and Biology of a New Unusual Fossil Lace Bug from the Eocene". PLOS ONE. 10 (8): 1–17. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1033330W. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0133330. PMC 4534043. PMID 26267108.

Further reading

Miller, L.T. 2004. Lace Bugs (Hemiptera: Tingidae). In Encyclopedia of Entomology (J.L. Capinera, editor). Vol 2. pp. 1238–1241.
Froeschner, R.C., 1996. Lace Bug Genera of the World, I: Introduction, Subfamily Canthacaderinae (Heteroptera: Tingidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, No. 574.
Froeschner, R.C., 2001. Lace Bug Genera of the World, II: Subfamily Tinginae: tribes Litadeini and Ypsotingini (Heteroptera: Tingidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, No. 611.
Drake, C.J. & Ruhoff, F.A., 1960. Lace-bug genera of the world. (Hemiptera: Tingidae). Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 112 (3431): 1–105, 9 pls.

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