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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids II
Ordo: Brassicales
Familiae: AkaniaceaeBataceaeBrassicaceae – Capparaceae – CaricaceaeCleomaceaeEmblingiaceaeGyrostemonaceaeKoeberliniaceaeLimnanthaceaeMoringaceaePentadiplandraceaeResedaceaeSalvadoraceaeSetchellanthaceae – Tiganophytaceae – TovariaceaeTropaeolaceae
Genus incertae sedis: Keithia

Name

Brassicales Bromhead Edinburgh New Philos. J. 24: 416. (1838)
Typus: Brassica L. Sp.Pl. 666. (1753)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Akaniales
Batales
Capparales
Caricales
Gyrostemonales
Limnanthales R.Br., London Edinburgh Philos. Mag. &. J. Sci. 3: 71. 1833.
Type genus: Limnanthes R.Br
Moringales
Resedales
Salvadorales
Tovariales
Tropaeolales

References

Bromhead, E.F. 1838. Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, 24: 416.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181(1): 1–20. DOI: 10.1111/boj.12385 Reference page.
Cardinal-McTeague, W.M., Sytsma, K.J. & Hall, J.C. 2016. Biogeography and diversification of Brassicales: a 103 million year tale. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 99: 204-224. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.02.021 PDF Reference page.
Fay, M.F. & Christenhusz, M.J.M. 2010. Brassicales - an order of plants characterized by shared chemistry. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 27: 165–196. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8748.2010.01695.x Reference page.
Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page.
Swanepoel, W., Chase, M.W., Christenhusz, M.J.M., Maurin, O., Forest, F. & van Wyk, A.E. 2020. From the frying pan: an unusual dwarf shrub from Namibia turns out to be a new brassicalean family. Phytotaxa 439(3): 171–185. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.439.3.1 Open access Reference page.

Vernacular names
العربية: كرنبيات
беларуская: Капустакветныя
català: Brassical
čeština: brukvotvaré
dansk: Korsblomst-ordenen
Deutsch: Kreuzblütlerartige
Esperanto: Brasikaloj
eesti: Kapsalaadsed
فارسی: کلم‌سانان
עברית: צלפאים
magyar: Keresztesvirágúak
íslenska: Krossblómabálkur
日本語: アブラナ目
한국어: 십자화목
kurdî: Koma kulîlkxaçiyan
latviešu: Krustziežu rinda
македонски: Зелковидни
norsk: Korsblomstordenen
polski: Kaparowce
русский: Капустоцветные
slovenčina: kapustotvaré
svenska: Kålordningen
తెలుగు: బ్రాసికేలిస్
ไทย: อันดับผักกาด
українська: Капустоцвіті
Tiếng Việt: Bộ Cải
中文: 十字花目


The Brassicales (or Cruciales) are an order of flowering plants, belonging to the eurosids II group of dicotyledons under the APG II system.[2] One character common to many members of the order is the production of glucosinolate (mustard oil) compounds. Most systems of classification have included this order, although sometimes under the name Capparales (the name chosen depending on which is thought to have priority).[3]

The order typically contains the following families:[4]

Akaniaceae – two species of turnipwood trees, native to Asia and eastern Australia
Bataceae – salt-tolerant shrubs from America and Australasia
Brassicaceae – mustard and cabbage family; may include the Cleomaceae
Capparaceae – caper family, sometimes included in Brassicaceae
Caricaceae – papaya family
Cleomaceae[1]
Gyrostemonaceae – several genera of small shrubs and trees endemic to temperate parts of Australia
Koeberliniaceae – one species of thorn bush native to Mexico and the US Southwest
Limnanthaceae – meadowfoam family
Moringaceae – thirteen species of trees from Africa and India
Pentadiplandraceae – African species whose berries have two highly sweet tasting proteins
Resedaceae – mignonette family
Salvadoraceae – three genera found from Africa to Java
Setchellanthaceae
Tiganophytaceae
Tovariaceae
Tropaeolaceae – nasturtium family

Classification

The following diagram shows the phylogeny of the Brassicales families along with their estimated ages, based on a 2018 study of plastid DNA:[5]

Brassicales families
36

Akaniaceae

Tropaeolaceae

 92
 64

Moringaceae

Caricaceae

Setchellanthaceae

 85

Limnanthaceae

 78

Salvadoraceae

Bataceae

 73

Koeberliniaceae

 66

Emblingiaceae

 61
 55

Pentadiplandraceae

 46

Resedaceae

Gyrostemonaceae

Tovariaceae

 49

Capparaceae

 43

Cleomaceae

Brassicaceae




Phylogentic relationships based on data from plastid DNA. The numbers next to each branching point indicate its estimated date (million years ago). Families with more than 30 species are in bold.

On 20 April 2020, a newly described monotypic species from Namibia, namely, Tiganophyton karasense Swanepoel, F.Forest & A.E. van Wyk is placed under this order as a monotypic member of new family Tiganophytaceae, which is closely related to Bataceae, Salvadoraceae and Koeberliniaceae.[6]
Historic classifications

Under the Cronquist system, the Brassicales were called the Capparales, and included among the "Dilleniidae". The only families included were the Brassicaceae and Capparaceae (treated as separate families), the Tovariaceae, Resedaceae, and Moringaceae. Other taxa now included here were placed in various other orders.
Cleome hassleriana

The families Capparaceae and Brassicaceae are closely related. One group, consisting of Cleome and related genera, was traditionally included in the Capparaceae but doing so results in a paraphyletic Capparaceae.[3] Therefore, this group is generally now either included in the Brassicaceae or as its own family, Cleomaceae.[4][7]
References

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 141 (4): 399–436. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x.
Jocelyn C. Hall, Kenneth J. Sytsma & Hugh H. Iltis (2002). "Phylogeny of Capparaceae and Brassicaceae based on chloroplast sequence data". American Journal of Botany. 89 (11): 1826–1842. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.11.1826. PMID 21665611.
Elspeth Haston; James E. Richardson; Peter F. Stevens; Mark W. Chase; David J. Harris (2007). "A linear sequence of Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II families". Taxon. 56 (1): 7–12. doi:10.2307/25065731. JSTOR 25065731.
Edger, Patrick P.; Hall, Jocelyn C.; Harkess, Alex; Tang, Michelle; Coombs, Jill; Mohammadin, Setareh; Schranz, M. Eric; Xiong, Zhiyong; Leebens-Mack, James; Meyers, Blake C.; Sytsma, Kenneth J.; Koch, Marcus A.; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A.; Pires, J. Chris (2018). "Brassicales phylogeny inferred from 72 plastid genes: A reanalysis of the phylogenetic localization of two paleopolyploid events and origin of novel chemical defenses". American Journal of Botany. 105 (3): 463–69. doi:10.1002/ajb2.1040.
Swanepoel, Wessel; Chase, Mark W.; Christenhusz, Maarten J.M.; Maurin, Olivier; Forest, Félix; van Wyk, Abraham E. (2020). "From the frying pan: an unusual dwarf shrub from Namibia turns out to be a new brassicalean family". Phytotaxa. 439 (3): 171–185. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.439.3.1.
Jocelyn C. Hall, Hugh H. Iltis & Kenneth J. Sytsma (2004). "Molecular phylogenetics of core Brassicales, placement of orphan genera Emblingia, Forchhammeria, Tirania, and character evolution" (PDF). Systematic Botany. 29 (3): 654–669. doi:10.1600/0363644041744491. S2CID 86218316. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-04-01. Retrieved 2016-08-26.

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