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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Caryophyllales

Familia: Caryophyllaceae
Tribus: Caryophylleae
Genus: Dianthus
Subgenera: D. subg. Carthusianastrum – D. subg. Dianthus
Intersubgeneric nothospecies: D. × allwoodii – D. × bottemeri – D. × dufftii – D. × huebneri – D. × jaczonis – D. × javorkae – D. × lorberi – D. × lucae – D. × nigritus – D. × roysii

Species
a

D. abchasicus – D. acantholimonoides – D. acicularis – D. acrochlorus – D. afghanicus – D. agrostolepis – D. akdaghensis – D. albens – D. algetanus – D. alpinus – D. altaicus – D. anatolicus – D. ancyrensis – D. andronakii – D. androsaceus – D. angolensis – D. angrenicus – D. angulatus – D. anticarius – D. arenarius – D. aristatus – D. armeria – D. arpadianus – D. arrostii – D. aticii – D. atschurensis – D. austroiranicus – D. awaricus – D. aydogdui – D. aytachii
b

D. balansae – D. balbisii – – D. basianicus – D. basuticus – D. behriorum – D. benearnensis – D. bessarabicus – D. bicolor – D. biflorus – D. bolusii – D. borbasii – D. borbonicus – D. brachycalyx – D. brevicaulis – D. brevipetalus – D. broteri – D. brutius – D. burchellii – D. burdurensis – D. busambraeD. barbatus
c

D. cachemiricus – D. caespitosus – D. callizonus – D. campestris – D. candicus – D. capitatus – D. carbonatus – D. carmelitarum – D. carthusianorum – D. caryophyllus – D. caucaseus – D. charadzeae – D. charidemi – D. chimanimaniensis – D. chinensis – D. chouardii – D. ciliatus – D. cinnamomeus – D. cintranus – D. collinus – D. corymbosus – D. crassipes – D. crenatus – D. cretaceus – D. cribrarius – D. crinitus – D. crossopetalus – D. cruentus – D. cyprius – D. cyri
d

D. daghestanicus – D. darvazicus – D. deltoides – D. denaicus – D. deserti – D. desideratus – D. diffusus – D. dilepis – D. diutinus – D. diversifolius – D. dobrogensis
e

D. edetanus – D. elatus – D. elbrusensis – D. eldivenus – D. elegans – D. elongatus – D. elymaiticus – D. engleri – D. eretmopetalus – D. ernesti-mayeri – D. erythrocoleus – D. eugeniae – D. excelsus
f

D. falconeri – D. fallax – D. ferrugineus – D. floribundus – D. foliosus – D. formanekii – D. fragrans – D. freynii – D. fruticosus – D. furcatus
g

D. gabrielianae – D. galicicae – D. gallicus – D. genargenteus – D. giganteiformis – D. giganteus – D. glacialis – D. glutinosus – D. goekayi – D. goerkii – D. gracilis – D. graniticus – D. gratianopolitanus – D. grossheimii – D. guessfeldtianus – D. guttatus
h

D. haematocalyx – D. hafezii – D. halisdemirii – D. hamzaoglui – D. harrissii – D. helenae – D. × hellwigii – D. henteri – D. hoeltzeri – D. holopetalus – D. humilis – D. hymenolepis – D. hypanicus – D. hyrcanicus – D. hyssopifolius
i

D. ichnusae – D. imereticus – D. inamoenus – D. ingoldbyi – D. insularis – D. integer – D. integerrimus
j

D. jablanicensis – D. jacobsii – D. jacquemontii – D. japigicus – D. japonicus – D. jaroslavii – D. jugoslavicus – D. juniperinus – D. juzeptchukii
k

D. kapinaensis – D. karami – D. karataviensis – D. kastembeluensis – D. khamiesbergensis – D. kirghizicus – D. kiusianus – D. klokovii – D. koreanus – D. kubanensis – D. kuschakewiczii – D. kusnezovii
l

D. lactiflorus – D. laingsburgensis – D. langeanus – D. laricifolius – D. legionensis – D. lenkoranicus – D. leptoloma – D. leptopetalus – D. leucophaeus – D. leucophoeniceus – D. libanotis – D. lindbergii – D. longicalyx – D. longiglumis – D. longivaginatus – D. lusitanus – D. lydus
m

D. macedonicus – D. macranthoides – D. macranthus – D. macroflorus – D. mainensis – D. marschallii – D. martuniensis – D. masmenaeus – D. mazanderanicus – D. membranaceus – D. mercurii – D. micranthus – D. microlepis – D. micropetalus – D. moesiacus – D. monadelphus – D. monspessulanus – D. mooiensis – D. multiaffinis – D. multiceps – D. multiflorus – D. multisquameus – D. muschianus – D. myrtinervius
n

D. namaensis – D. nangarharicus – D. nanshanicus – D. nardiformis – D. nihatii – D. nitidus – D. noeanus
o

D. ohridanus – D. oliastrae – D. orientalis – D. oschtenicus
p

D. paghmanicus – D. palinensis – D. pallidiflorus – D. pamiroalaicus – D. pancicii – D. patentisquameus – D. pavlovii – D. pavonius – D. pelviformis – D. pendulus – D. persicus – D. petraeus – D. pinifolius – D. platyodon – D. plumarius – D. plumbeus – D. polylepis – D. polymorphus – D. pontederae – D. praecox – D. pratensis – D. prilepensis – D. pseudarmeria – D. pseudocrinitus – D. pungens – D. purpureimaculatus – D. pusillus – D. pygmaeus – D. pyrenaicus
r

D. raddeanus – D. ramosissimus – D. recognitus – D. repens – D. rigidus – D. robustus – D. roseoluteus – D. rudbaricus – D. rupicola – D. ruprechtii
s

D. sachalinensis – D. saetabensis – D. sahandicus – D. sajanensis – D. sancarii – D. sardous – D. scaber – D. scardicus – D. schemachensis – D. seguieri – D. seidlitzii – D. seisuimontanus – D. semenovii – D. seravschanicus – D. serotinus – D. serpentinus – D. serratifolius – D. serrulatus – D. sessiliflorus – D. setisquameus – D. shinanensis – D. siculus – D. simulans – D. sinaicus – D. siphonocalyx – D. skopjensis – D. somanus – D. soongoricus – D. sphacioticus – D. spiculifolius – D. squarrosus – D. stamatiadae – D. stapfii – D. stenocephalus – D. stenopetalus – D. stepanovae – D. sternbergii – D. stramineus – D. stribrnyi – D. strictiformis – D. strictus – D. strymonis – D. subacaulis – D. subaphyllus – D. subscabridus – D. subulosus – D. superbus – D. sylvestris – D. szowitsianus
t

D. tabrisianus – D. takhtajanii – D. talyschensis – D. tenuiflorus – D. thunbergii – D. tlaratensis – D. toletanus – D. transvaalensis – D. trifasciculatus – D. tripunctatus – D. tunicoides – D. turkestanicus – D. tymphresteus
u

D. ucarii – D. ugamicus – D. uniflorus – D. uralensis – D. urumoffii – D. uzbekistanicus
v

D. vanensis – D. varankii – D. vigoi – D. viridescens – D. viscidus – D. vladimiri – D. vodnensis – D. volgicus – D. vulturius
w

D. webbianus – D. woroschilovii
x

D. xylorrhizus
z

D. zangezuricus – D. zederbaueri – D. zeyheri – D. zonatus
Source(s) of checklist:

Hassler, M. 2019. Dianthus. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2019 Sep 05. Reference page.

Name

Dianthus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 409. (1753); Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 191. (1754).

Lectotype species: Dianthus caryophyllus L., designated by Britton & Brown 1913: 73, affirmed by Hitchcock in Hitchcock & Green 1929: 155.

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Caryophyllus Tourn. ex Moench, Methodus: 58 (1794).
Cylichnanthus Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 260 (1867).
Diosanthos St.-Lag., Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 87 (1880).
Plumaria Opiz, Seznam: 75 (1852).
Velezia L., Sp. Pl. 1: 332 (1753).

Note: Circumscription does not fully follow Madhani et al. (2018) and Govaerts et al. (2020) differs from Hassler (2020).
References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 409. Reference page.
Linnaeus, C. 1754. Genera Plantarum, ed. 5: 191. Reference page.

Additional references

Britton, N.L. & Brown, A. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102d meridian. ed. 2. C. Scribner's sons, New York. Vol. 2: 73. Reference page.
Hitchcock, A.S. & Green, M.L. 1929. Standard species of Linnaean genera of Phanerogamae (1753–1754). pp. 111–195 in International Botanical Congress. Cambridge (England), 1930. Nomenclature. Proposals by British Botanists. His Majesty's Stationery Office, London. Biblioteca Digital Reference page.
Madhani, H., Rabeler, R.K., Pirani, A., Oxelman, B., Heubl, G. & Zarre, S. 2018. Untangling phylogenetic patterns and taxonomic confusion in tribe Caryophylleae (Caryophyllaceae) with special focus on generic boundaries. Taxon 67(1): 83–112. DOI: 10.12705/671.6 PDF Reference page.
Williams, F.N. 1885. Enumeratio specierum varietatumque generis Dianthus; Characteres communes sectionibus includens. Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 23(11): 340–349. BHL Reference page.

Links

Hassler, M. 2019. Dianthus. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2019 Sep 05. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Dianthus in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2019 Sep 05. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Dianthus. Published online. Accessed: Sep 05 2019.
Tropicos.org 2019. Dianthus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 05 Sep 2019.

Vernacular names
العربية: قرنفل
azərbaycanca: Qərənfil
Boarisch: Nagele
беларуская: Гваздзік
български: Карамфил
བོད་ཡིག: ཟིང་དཀར།
català: Clavell
کوردی: مێخەک
čeština: hvozdík
dansk: Nellike
Deutsch: Nelken
English: Pinks and Carnations
Esperanto: Dianto
español: Clavel
eesti: Nelk
euskara: Krabelin
فارسی: گل میخک
suomi: Neilikat
français: Œillet
עברית: ציפורן
hornjoserbsce: Nalika
Kreyòl ayisyen: Eyè
magyar: Szegfű
Ido: Dianto
italiano: Garofano
日本語: ナデシコ
ქართული: მიხაკი
қазақша: Қалампыр
Limburgs: Graffiaot
lietuvių: Gvazdikas
Nederlands: Anjer
norsk nynorsk: Nellikslekta
norsk: Nellikslekta
ирон: Даричин
polski: Goździk
Runa Simi: Klawil
русский: Гвоздика
davvisámegiella: Nellehat
slovenčina: klinček
shqip: Karafil
српски / srpski: Каранфил
svenska: Nejliksläktet
Türkçe: Karanfil
українська: Гвоздика
Tiếng Việt: Chi Cẩm chướng
walon: Djalofrene
中文: 石竹属

Dianthus is a genus of about 340 species of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae, native mainly to Europe and Asia, with a few species in north Africa and in southern Africa, and one species (D. repens) in arctic North America. Common names include carnation (D. caryophyllus), pink (D. plumarius and related species) and sweet william (D. barbatus).
Contents

1 Description
1.1 Species
1.2 Etymology
2 Ecology
3 Cultivation
4 Culture
5 Gallery
6 See also
7 References
8 External links

Description

The species are mostly herbaceous perennials, a few are annual or biennial, and some are low subshrubs with woody basal stems. The leaves are opposite, simple, mostly linear and often strongly glaucous grey green to blue green. The flowers have five petals, typically with a frilled or pinked margin, and are (in almost all species) pale to dark pink. One species, D. knappii, has yellow flowers with a purple centre. Some species, particularly the perennial pinks, are noted for their strong spicy fragrance.
Species
Main article: List of Dianthus species

Selected species include:

Dianthus acicularis
Dianthus albens – wild pink
Dianthus alpinus – Alpine pink
Dianthus amurensis – Amur pink
Dianthus anatolicus
Dianthus arenarius – sand pink
Dianthus armeria – Deptford pink
Dianthus balbisii
Dianthus barbatus – sweet william
Dianthus basuticus – Lesotho pink
Dianthus biflorus
Dianthus bolusii – mountain pink
Dianthus brevicaulis
Dianthus broteri
Dianthus burgasensis
Dianthus caespitosus – Karoo pink
Dianthus callizonus
Dianthus campestris
Dianthus capitatus
Dianthus carthusianorum – Carthusian pink
Dianthus caryophyllus – carnation or clove pink
Dianthus chinensis – China pink
Dianthus crenatus
Dianthus cruentus
Dianthus cyprius – North Cyprus pink
Dianthus deltoides – maiden pink
Dianthus erinaceus
Dianthus fragrans
Dianthus freynii
Dianthus fruticosus
Dianthus furcatus
Dianthus giganteus – giant pink
Dianthus glacialis
Dianthus gracilis
Dianthus graniticus
Dianthus gratianopolitanus – Cheddar pink
Dianthus haematocalyx
Dianthus hyssopifolius subsp. gallicus – French pink or Jersey pink
Dianthus japonicus – Seashore pink
Dianthus japigicus
Dianthus kladovanus
Dianthus knappii
Dianthus libanotis – Lebanon pink
Dianthus lusitanus
Dianthus microlepis
Dianthus moesiacus
Dianthus monspessulanus – fringed pink
Dianthus myrtinervius – Albanian pink
Dianthus nardiformis
Dianthus nitidus
Dianthus orientalis
Dianthus pavonius
Dianthus pendulus
Dianthus petraeus
Dianthus pinifolius
Dianthus plumarius – garden pinks, wild pink
Dianthus pungens
Dianthus repens – boreal carnation
Dianthus scardicus
Dianthus seguieri – Sequier's pink
Dianthus serotinus – late pink
Dianthus simulans
Dianthus spiculifolius
Dianthus squarrosus
Dianthus strictus
Dianthus subacaulis
Dianthus superbus – large pink, nadeshiko
Dianthus sylvestris – wood pink
Dianthus tenuifolius
Dianthus thunbergii – Thunberg's wild pink
Dianthus urumoffii
Dianthus zonatus

Hybrids include;

'Devon Xera' – Fire Star Dianthus[1]
'John Prichard'

Etymology

The name Dianthus is from the Greek words δῖος dios ("of Zeus") and ἄνθος anthos ("flower"), and was cited by the Greek botanist Theophrastus. The color pink may be named after the flower, coming from the frilled edge of the flowers: the verb "to pink" dates from the 14th century and means "to decorate with a perforated or punched pattern". As is also demonstrated by the name of "pinking shears", special scissors for cloth that create a zigzag or decorative edge that discourages fraying. Alternatively, "pink" may be derived from the Dutch "pinksteren" alluding to the season of flowering . "Pinksteren" means "Pentecost " in Dutch. Thus the colour may be named from the flower rather than the flower from the colour.
Ecology

Dianthus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including cabbage moth, double-striped pug, large yellow underwing and the lychnis. Also three species of Coleophora case-bearers feed exclusively on Dianthus; C. dianthi, C. dianthivora and C. musculella (which feeds exclusively on D. superbus).
Cultivation

Since 1717, dianthus species have been extensively bred and hybridised to produce many thousands of cultivars for garden use and floristry, in all shades of white, pink, yellow and red, with a huge variety of flower shapes and markings. They are often divided into the following main groups:[2][3]

Border carnations – fully hardy, growing to 60 cm (24 in), large blooms
Perpetual flowering carnations – grown under glass, flowering throughout the year, often used for exhibition purposes, growing to 150 cm (59 in)
Malmaison carnations – derived from the variety 'Souvenir de la Malmaison', growing to 70 cm (28 in), grown for their intense "clove" fragrance
Old-fashioned pinks – older varieties; evergreen perennials forming mounds of blue-green foliage with masses of flowers in summer, growing to 45 cm (18 in)
Modern pinks – newer varieties, growing to 45 cm (18 in), often blooming two or three times per year
Alpine pinks – mat-forming perennials, suitable for the rockery or alpine garden, growing to 10 cm (4 in)

Over 100 varieties have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit[4] (see the List of Award of Garden Merit dianthus).
Culture

In the language of flowers, pink Dianthus symbolize boldness.[5]

Dianthus gratianopolitanus – the Cheddar pink – was chosen as the county flower of Somerset in 2002 following a poll by the wild flora conservation charity Plantlife.[6] Dianthus japonicus is the official flower of Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, Japan.

References

"Dianthus 'Devon Xera' Fire Star – Plant Finder".
RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1-4053-3296-5.
Leslie, A.C. (2012). The International Dianthus Register (1983) & Checklist: Twenty-ninth Supplement. Royal Horticultural Society.
"AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). www.rhs.org. Royal Horticultural Society. November 2018. p. 30. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
"Language of Flowers – Flower Meanings, Flower Sentiments". www.languageofflowers.com. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
Plantlife website County Flowers page. Archived 2015-04-30 at the Wayback Machine

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