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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Scutellarioideae
Genus: Scutellaria
Subgenera: S. subg. Apeltanthus – S. subg. Scutellaria
Species (459 accepted)

S. adenostegia – S. adenotricha – S. adsurgens – S. agrestis – S. alabamensis – S. albida – S. albituba – S. alborosea – S. alpina – S. alta – S. altaica – S. altamaha – S. altissima – S. amabilis – S. amicorum – S. amoena – S. amphichlora – S. anatolica – S. andamanica – S. andrachnoides – S. androssovii – S. angrenica – S. angustifolia – S. anhweiensis – S. anitae – S. anomala – S. antirrhinoides – S. arabica – S. aramberrana – S. araxensis – S. arenicola – S. arguta – S. ariana – S. artvinensis – S. asperiflora – S. assamica – S. atrocyanea – S. attenuifolia – S. aurantiaca – S. aurata – S. aurea – S. austrotaiwanensis – S. axilliflora – S. baicalensis – S. baldshuanica – S. balearica – S. bambusetorum – S. barbata – S. bartlettii – S. benthamiana – S. blepharophylla – S. bolanderi – S. botbaevae – S. botschantzevii – S. brachyspica – S. brevibracteata – S. brittonii – S. bucharica – S. bushii – S. calcarata – S. californica – S. cardiophylla – S. carmenensis – S. caryopteroides – S. catharinae – S. caucasica – S. caudifolia – S. chaematochlora – S. chamaedrifolia – S. chekiangensis – S. chenopodiifolia – S. chevalieri – S. chiangii – S. chihshuiensis – S. chimenensis – S. chodshakasiani – S. chungtienensis – S. coccinea – S. cochinchinensis – S. colpodea – S. columnae – S. comosa – S. cordifrons – S. costaricana – S. cristata – S. cyanocheila – S. cylindriflora – S. cypria – S. daghestanica – S. darriensis – S. darvasica – S. delavayi – S. dependens – S. diffusa – S. discolor – S. drummondii – S. dumetorum – S. durangensis – S. ebracteata – S. edelbergii – S. elliptica – S. eplingii – S. farsistanica – S. fauriei – S. fedschenkoi – S. filicaulis – S. flabellulata – S. flocculosa – S. floridana – S. fontqueri – S. formosa – S. formosana – S. forrestii – S. fragillima – S. franchetiana – S. fraxinea – S. fruticetorum – S. galericulata – S. galerita – S. gardoquioides – S. gaumeri – S. ghorana – S. glabrata – S. glabriuscula – S. glandulosa – S. glaphymstachys – S. glechomifolia – S. glechomoides – S. glutinosa – S. gontscharovii – S. grandiflora – S. granulosa – S. grossa – S. grossecrenata – S. grossheimiana – S. guatemalensis – S. guilielmii – S. guttata – S. haematochlora – S. haesitabunda – S. hainanensis – S. hastifolia – S. havanensis – S. helenae – S. heterophylla – S. heterotricha – S. heydei – S. hintoniana – S. hintoniorum – S. hirta – S. hispidula – S. hissarica – S. holosericea – S. honanensis – S. hookeri – S. humilis – S. hunanensis – S. hypericifolia – S. immaculata – S. incana – S. incarnata – S. incisa – S. incurva – S. indica – S. inghokensis – S. insignis – S. integrifolia – S. intermedia – S. irrasa – S. iskanderi – S. iyoensis – S. jaliscana – S. javanica – S. jodudiana – S. juzepczukii – S. kamelinii – S. karatavica – S. karjaginii – S. karkaralensis – S. ketenoglui – S. khasiana – S. kikai-insularis – S. kingiana – S. kiusiana – S. knorringiae – S. kotkaiensis – S. krasevii – S. kugarti – S. kuromidakensis – S. kurssanovii – S. lacei – S. lactea – S. laeteviolacea – S. laevis – S. langbianensis – S. lanipes – S. lateriflora – S. laxa – S. leptosiphon – S. leptostegia – S. leucantha – S. likiangensis – S. lilungensis – S. linarioides – S. linczewskii – S. lindbergii – S. lindeniana – S. linearis – S. lipskyi – S. litwinowii – S. longifolia – S. longituba – S. lotienensis – S. lundellii – S. lutea – S. luteocaerulea – S. lutescens – S. lutilabia – S. macra – S. macrochlamys – S. macrodonta – S. macrosiphon – S. mairei – S. maxonii – S. meehanioides – S. megalaspis – S. megalodonta – S. megaphylla – S. mellichampii – S. mesostegia – S. mexicana – S. microdasys – S. microphylla – S. microphysa – S. microviolacea – S. minor – S. mociniana – S. modesta – S. molanguitensis – S. molinarum – S. mollifolia – S. mollis – S. mongolica – S. moniliorhiza – S. montana – S. monterreyana – S. mulleri – S. multibrachiata – S. multicaulis – S. multiflora – S. multiglandulosa – S. multiramosa – S. muramatsui – S. muriculata – S. muzquiziana – S. nana – S. navicularis – S. nepetifolia – S. nepetoides – S. nervosa – S. neubaueri – S. nevskii – S. nigricans – S. nigrocardia – S. novae-zelandiae – S. novorossica – S. nummulariifolia – S. nuristanica – S. oaxacana – S. oblonga – S. oblongifolia – S. obtusifolia – S. ocellata – S. ochotensis – S. ocmulgee – S. ocymoides – S. oligodonta – S. oligophlebia – S. omeiensis – S. orbicularis – S. oreophila – S. orichalcea – S. orientalis – S. orizabensis – S. orthocalyx – S. orthotricha – S. oschtenica – S. ossethica – S. ovata – S. oxystegia – S. pacifica – S. pallidiflora – S. pamirica – S. paradoxa – S. parrae – S. parvula – S. paulsenii – S. pekinensis – S. persica – S. petersoniae – S. petiolata – S. phyllostachya – S. physocalyx – S. picta – S. pingbienensis – S. pinnatifida – S. platensis – S. platystegia – S. platystoma – S. playfairii – S. poecilantha – S. poliochlora – S. polyadena – S. polyadenia – S. polyphylla – S. polytricha – S. pontica – S. popovii – S. porphyrantha – S. potosina – S. prilipkoana – S. prostrata – S. przewalskii – S. pseudocoerulea – S. pseudocoleus – S. pseudoserrata – S. pseudotenax – S. purpurascens – S. purpureocardia – S. pycnoclada – S. quadrilobulata – S. racemosa – S. raddeana – S. ramosissima – S. ramozanica – S. regeliana – S. rehderiana – S. repens – S. resinosa – S. reticulata – S. rhomboidalis – S. robusta – S. rosei – S. roseocyanea – S. rubicunda – S. rubromaculata – S. rubropunctata – S. rupestris – S. russelioides – S. salviifolia – S. sapphirina – S. sarmentosa – S. saslayensis – S. saxatilis – S. scandens – S. schachristanica – S. schugnanica – S. schweinfurthii – S. sciaphila – S. scordiifolia – S. scutellarioides – S. sedelmeyerae – S. seleriana – S. semicircularis – S. serboana – S. serrata – S. sessilifolia – S. sevanensis – S. shansiensis – S. shikokiana – S. shweliensis – S. sibthorpii – S. sichourensis – S. sieberi – S. sieversii – S. siphocampyloides – S. sipilensis – S. slametensis – S. somalensis – S. sosnowskyi – S. spectabilis – S. splendens – S. sporadum – S. squarrosa – S. stachyoides – S. stachys – S. stenosiphon – S. stewartii – S. stocksii – S. striatella – S. strigillosa – S. subcaespitosa – S. subcordata – S. subintegra – S. suffrutescens – S. supina – S. swatensis – S. szovitziana – S. taipeiensis – S. taiwanensis – S. talamancana – S. talassica – S. tapintzensis – S. tarokoensis – S. tatianae – S. tauricola – S. tayloriana – S. tenax – S. tenera – S. teniana – S. tenuiflora – S. tenuipetiolata – S. ternejica – S. texana – S. theobromina – S. tienchuanensis – S. titovii – S. toguztoravensis – S. tomentosa – S. tortumensis – S. tournefortii – S. tsinyunensis – S. tsusimensis – S. tuberifera – S. tuberosa – S. tubiflora – S. tucurriquensis – S. tuminensis – S. turgaica – S. tutensis – S. tuvensis – S. uliginosa – S. umbratilis – S. urticifolia – S. utriculata – S. valdiviana – S. velutina – S. villosissima – S. violacea – S. violascens – S. viscidula – S. vitifolia – S. volubilis – S. weishanensis – S. wendtii – S. wenshanensis – S. wightiana – S. wongkei – S. woodii – S. wrightii – S. xanthosiphon – S. xylorrhiza – S. yangbiensis – S. yezoensis – S. yingtakensis – S. yunnanensis – S. zaprjagaevii – S. zivari

Nothospecies: S. × churchilliana – S. × ketenoglui – S. × minkwitziae – S. × neumannii – S. × nicholsonii
Name

Scutellaria L., Sp. Pl. 2: 598 (1753).

Type species: Scutellaria galericulata L. Sp. Pl. 2: 598 (1753).

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Cassida Ség., Pl. Veron. 3: 130 (1754)
Hastifolia Ehrh., Beitr. Naturk. 4: 148 (1789)
Perilomia Kunth in F.W.H.von Humboldt, A.J.A.Bonpland & C.S.Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 2: 326 (1818)
Theresa Clos in C.Gay, Fl. Chil. 4: 496 (1849)
Salazaria Torr. in W.H.Emory, Rep. U.S. Mex. Bound. 2(1): 133 (1858)
Cruzia Phil., Anales Univ. Chile 90: 558 (1895)
Anaspis Rech.f., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 15: 630 (1941)
Harlanlewisia Epling, Amer. J. Bot. 42: 436 (1955)

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Europe
Northern Europe
Denmark, Finland, Great Britain, Ireland, Norway, Sweden.
Middle Europe
Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland.
Southwestern Europe
Baleares, Corse, France, Portugal, Sardegna, Spain.
Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Kriti, Romania, Sicilia, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia.
Eastern Europe
Belarus, Baltic States, Krym, Central European Russia, East European Russia, North European Russia, South European Russia, Northwest European Russia, Ukraine.
Africa
Northern Africa
Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia.
Macaronesia
Azores.
West Tropical Africa
Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierre Leone.
West-Central Tropical Africa
Burundi, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Rwanda, Zaïre.
Northeast Tropical Africa
Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan.
East Tropical Africa
Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda.
South Tropical Africa
Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
Asia-Temperate
Siberia
Altay, Buryatiya, Chita, Irkutsk Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, West Siberia, Yakutiya.
Russian Far East
Amur, Khabarovsk, Kuril Islands, Primorye, Sakhalin.
Middle Asia
Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Turkmenistan, Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan.
Caucasus
North Caucasus, Transcaucasus.
Western Asia
Afghanistan, Cyprus, East Aegean Islands, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon-Syria, Palestine, Sinai, Turkey.
Arabian Peninsula
Saudi Arabia, Yemen.
China
China South-Central, Hainan, Inner Mongolia, Manchuria, China North-Central, Qinghai, China Southeast, Tibet, Xinjiang.
Mongolia
Mongolia.
Eastern Asia
Japan, Korea, Nansei-shoto, Ogasawara-shoto, Taiwan.
Asia-Tropical
Indian Subcontinent
Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, West Himalaya.
Indo-China
Andaman Islands, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam.
Malesia
Jawa, Lesser Sunda Islands, Malaya, Maluku, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatera.
Papuasia
New Guinea.
Australasia
Australia
New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria.
New Zealand
New Zealand South.
Northern America
Subarctic America
Alaska, Northwest Territories, Yukon.
Western Canada
Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba.
Eastern Canada
Labrador, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isle, Québec.
Northwestern U.S.A.
Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming.
North-Central U.S.A.
Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Nebraska, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin.
Northeastern U.S.A.
Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Islands, Vermont, West Virginia.
Southwestern U.S.A.
Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah.
South-Central U.S.A.
New Mexico, Texas.
Southeastern U.S.A.
Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, North Dakota, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, District of Columbia.
Mexico
Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Mexico Southeast.
Southern America
Central America
Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama.
Caribbean
Bahamas, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Islands.
Northern South America
French Guiana, Venezuela.
Western South America
Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Idaho, Oregon, Peru, Washington.
Brazil
Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil North, Brazil South.
Southern South America
Argentina Northeast, Argentina South, Argentina Northwest, Chile Central, Chile South, Paraguay, Uruguay.
Antartic
Subantarctic Islands
Falkland Islands.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 598.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2014. Scutellaria in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 June 21. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2014. Scutellaria. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 June 21.
International Plant Names Index. 2014. Scutellaria. Published online. Accessed: June 21 2014.

Vernacular names
azərbaycanca: Başlıqotu
беларуская: Шлёмнік
čeština: šišák
dansk: Skjolddrager
Deutsch: Helmkräuter
English: Skullcaps
Esperanto: Skutelario
eesti: Tihashein
فارسی: بشقابی
suomi: Vuohennokat
français: Scutellaires
Gaeilge: Cochall
עברית: קערורית
hornjoserbsce: Šišak
magyar: Csukóka
հայերեն: Սաղավարտուկ
日本語: タツナミソウ属
ქართული: მუზარადა
қазақша: Томағашөп
lietuvių: Kalpokė
Nederlands: Glidkruid
norsk nynorsk: Skjoldberarslekta
norsk: Skjoldbærerslekta
polski: Tarczyca
русский: Шлемник
slovenčina: Šišak
svenska: Frossörtssläktet
українська: Шоломниця
中文: 黄芩属

Scutellaria is a genus of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae. They are known commonly as skullcaps.[2] The generic name is derived from the Latin scutella, meaning "a small dish, tray or platter",[3] or "little dish",[4] referring to the shape of the calyx.[4] The common name alludes to the resemblance of the same structure to "miniature medieval helmets".[4] The genus has a subcosmopolitan distribution,[5] with species occurring nearly worldwide, mainly in temperate regions.[6]

Description

Most are annual or perennial herbaceous plants from 5 to 100 cm (2 to 39 in) tall, but a few are subshrubs; some are aquatic. They have four-angled stems and opposite leaves. The flowers have upper and lower lips. The genus is most easily recognized by the typical shield on the calyx that has also prompted its common name.
Traditional use

Skullcaps are common herbal remedies in systems of traditional medicine. In traditional Chinese medicine they are utilized to "clear away the heat-evil and expel superficial evils".[7] Scutellaria baicalensis in particular is a common component of many preparations.[8] Its root, known as Radix Scutellariae, is the source of the Chinese medicine Huang Qin. It is still in demand today, and marketed in volumes that have led to the overexploitation of the wild plant. Its rarity has led to an increase in price, and encouraged the adulteration of the product with other species of Scutellaria.[9]

In North America, Scutellaria lateriflora became[when?] a common treatment in America for rabies.[10] Today it is still a popular medicinal herb.[11] It is widely available as a commercial product used in western herbalism to treat anxiety and muscle tension.[12] The plant reportedly commands prices of $16 to $64 per pound dry weight.[13]
Constituents and pharmacology

The main compounds responsible for the biological activity of skullcap are flavonoids.[9] Baicalein, one of the important Scutellaria flavonoids, was shown to have cardiovascular effects in in vitro.[14] Research also shows that Scutellaria root modulates inflammatory activity in vitro to inhibit nitric oxide (NO), cytokine, chemokine and growth factor production in macrophages.[15] Isolated chemical compounds including wogonin, wogonoside, and 3,5,7,2',6'-pentahydroxyl flavanone found in Scutellaria have been shown to inhibit histamine and leukotriene release.[16] Other active constituents include baicalin, apigenin, oroxylin A, scutellarein, and skullcapflavone.[17]

Some Scutellaria species, including S. baicalensis and S. lateriflora, have demonstrated anxiolytic activity in both animals and humans.[17][18][19] A variety of flavonoids in Scutellaria species have been found to bind to the benzodiazepine site and/or a non-benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor, including baicalin, baicalein, wogonin, apigenin, oroxylin A, scutellarein, and skullcapflavone II.[20][21][22] Baicalin and baicalein,[22][23][24][25] wogonin,[26] and apigenin[27] have been confirmed to act as positive allosteric modulators and produce anxiolytic effects in animals, whereas oroxylin A acts as a negative allosteric modulator (and also, notably, as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor).[28][29][30] As such, these compounds and actions, save oroxylin A, are likely to underlie the anxiolytic effects of Scutellaria species.[19]

Scutellaria also contains rosmarinic acid which inhibits GABA transaminase which breaks GABA down, thus making it available longer.[31]
Selected species

Estimates of the number of species in the genus range from around 300[4][6] to about 350[7][32] or 360[33] to 425.[5][34]

Species include:[2][35][36][37]

Scutellaria alabamensis – Alabama skullcap
Scutellaria albida
Scutellaria alborosea Lem.
Scutellaria alpina L. – alpine skullcap
Scutellaria altamaha – pineland skullcap
Scutellaria altissima L. – Somerset skullcap, tall skullcap
Scutellaria amoena
Scutellaria anatolica[38]
Scutellaria angustifolia – narrowleaf skullcap
Scutellaria antirrhinoides Benth. – nose skullcap
Scutellaria arenicola – Florida scrub skullcap
Scutellaria arguta – Blue Ridge skullcap
Scutellaria atriplicifolia
Scutellaria aurata
Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi – Baikal skullcap, Chinese skullcap
Scutellaria barbata D.Don – barbed skullcap
Scutellaria bolanderi A.Gray – Sierra skullcap
Scutellaria brachyspica
Scutellaria brittonii – Britton's skullcap
Scutellaria bushii – Bush's skullcap
Scutellaria caerulea – blue skullcap
Scutellaria californica A.Gray – California skullcap
Scutellaria cardiophylla – gulf skullcap
Scutellaria columnae
Scutellaria costaricana H.Wendl. – scarlet skullcap, Costa Rican skullcap
Scutellaria drummondii – Drummond's skullcap
Scutellaria elliptica Muhl. – hairy skullcap
Scutellaria floridana Chapm. – Florida skullcap
Scutellaria formosana
Scutellaria galericulata L. – common skullcap, marsh skullcap
Scutellaria glabriuscula – Georgia skullcap
Scutellaria hastifolia – spear-leaved skullcap
Scutellaria havanensis – Havana skullcap
Scutellaria hirta
Scutellaria hookeri
Scutellaria humilis
Scutellaria incana Biehler – downy skullcap, hoary skullcap
Scutellaria incarnata Vent.
Scutellaria indica L.
Scutellaria integrifolia L. – helmet flower
Scutellaria laevis – Culberson County skullcap
Scutellaria lateriflora L. – blue skullcap, Virginian skullcap
Scutellaria longifolia Benth.
Scutellaria longituba
Scutellaria meehanioides
Scutellaria mexicana
Scutellaria microphylla – littleleaf skullcap
Scutellaria minor Huds. – lesser skullcap
Scutellaria montana Chapm. – mountain skullcap, large-flowered skullcap
Scutellaria multiglandulosa – Small's skullcap
Scutellaria muriculata – Rio Grande skullcap
Scutellaria nana A.Gray – dwarf skullcap
Scutellaria nervosa – veiny skullcap
Scutellaria novae-zelandaie
Scutellaria ocmulgee – Ocmulgee skullcap
Scutellaria orientalis
Scutellaria ovata Hill – heart-leaved skullcap
Scutellaria parvula Michx. – small skullcap
Scutellaria pekinensis
Scutellaria potosina – Mexican skullcap
Scutellaria pseudoserrata – falseteeth skullcap
Scutellaria purpurascens
Scutellaria racemosa – South American skullcap
Scutellaria rehderiana
Scutellaria resinosa Torr. – sticky skullcap
Scutellaria rubicunda
Scutellaria sapphirina – White Pine skullcap
Scutellaria sarmentosa
Scutellaria saxatilis – smooth rock skullcap
Scutellaria serboana[39]
Scutellaria serrata – showy skullcap
Scutellaria siphocampyloides – grayleaf skullcap
Scutellaria splendens
Scutellaria strigillosa
Scutellaria suffrutescens
Scutellaria texana – Texas skullcap
Scutellaria thieretii – Thieret's skullcap
Scutellaria tuberosa Benth. – Danny's skullcap
Scutellaria utriculata
Scutellaria ventenatii
Scutellaria violacea
Scutellaria viscidula
Scutellaria wrightii – Wright's skullcap

See also

Piper methysticum (kava), another anxiolytic GABAergic plant
Valeriana officinalis (valerian), a sedative GABAergic plant
Chaenomeles speciosa, also contains a constituent that acts as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor

References

"Genus: Scutellaria L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2006-11-03. Retrieved 2010-11-12.
"Scutellaria". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2010-11-12.
Scutellaria parvula var. missouriensis. Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium. University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point.
Joshee, Nirmal; Patrick, Thomas S.; Mentreddy, Rao S.; Yadav, Anand K (2002). "Skullcap: Potential medicinal crop". In Janick, J.; Whipkey, A. (eds.). Trends in New Crops and New Uses. Alexandria, Virginia: ASHS Press. pp. 580–6.
Ulloa, C. U. and P. M. Jørgensen. Scutellaria. Árboles y arbustos de los Andes del Ecuador. eFloras.
Scutellaria. The Jepson eFlora 2013.
Shang, Xiaofei; He, Xirui; He, Xiaoying; Li, Maoxing; Zhang, Ruxue; Fan, Pengcheng; Zhang, Quanlong; Jia, Zhengping (2010). "The genus Scutellaria an ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 128 (2): 279–313. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.01.006. PMID 20064593.
Cole, Ian; Cao, Jin; Alan, Ali; Saxena, Praveen; Murch, Susan (2008). "Comparisons of Scutellaria baicalensis, Scutellaria lateriflora and Scutellaria racemosa: Genome Size, Antioxidant Potential and Phytochemistry". Planta Medica. 74 (4): 474–81. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1034358. PMID 18484546.
Guo, Xiaorong; Wang, Xiaoguo; Su, Wenhua; Zhang, Guangfei; Zhou, Rui (2011). "DNA Barcodes for Discriminating the Medicinal Plant Scutellaria baicalensis (Lamiaceae) and Its Adulterants". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 34 (8): 1198–203. doi:10.1248/bpb.34.1198. PMID 21804206.
Scutellaria lateriflora.[dead link] Southern Cross Plant Science. Southern Cross University.
Li, Jing; Wang, Yan-Hong; Smillie, Troy J.; Khan, Ikhlas A. (2012). "Identification of phenolic compounds from Scutellaria lateriflora by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet photodiode array and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry". Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 63: 120–7. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2012.01.027. PMID 22342658.
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