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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Superclassis: Multicrustacea
Classis: Malacostraca
Subclassis: Eumalacostraca
Superordo: Syncarida
Ordo: Bathynellacea
Familiae: Bathynellidae - Parabathynellidae


Camacho, A.I.; Dorda, B.A.; Rey, I. 2014: Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island Bathynellacea (Crustacea, Syncarida) database. ZooKeys, 386: 1–20. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.386.6296 Reference page.
Camacho, A.I., Dorda, B.A., Chillón, B.S. & Rey, I. 2017. The collection of Bathynellacea specimens of MNCN (CSIC) Madrid: microscope slices and DNA extract. ZooKeys 678: 31–63. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.678.11543 Open access Reference page.
Schminke, H.K.; Noodt, W. 1968: Discovery of Bathynellaceae, Stygocaridacea and other interstitial Crustacea in New Zealand. Naturwissenschaften 55(4): 184-185. DOI: 10.1007/BF00591032 Reference page.

Vernacular names
中文: 地虾目

Bathynellacea is an order of crustaceans which live interstitially in groundwater.[3] Some species can tolerate low salt concentrations, and at least one African species is a thermophile, living in hot springs and tolerating temperatures up to 55 °C (131 °F).[citation needed] Bathynellaceans are minute, blind, worm-like animals with short, weak legs,[4] reaching a maximum size of 3.4 millimetres (0.13 in).[5] They are found on every continent except Antarctica, although they are missing from some islands, including Fiji, New Caledonia and the Caribbean islands.[citation needed] There are two families, Bathynellidae and Parabathynellidae; a third family, "Leptobathynellidae", is considered a synonym of Parabathynellidae.[6]

"Bathynellacea". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
Pierre-Alfred Chappuis (1915). "Bathynella natans und ihre Stellung im System". Zoologische Jahrbücher: Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Thiere (in German). 40 (2): 147–176.
J. K. Lowry. "Bathynellacea (Malacostraca)". Crustacea, the Higher Taxa: Description, Identification, and Information Retrieval. Archived from the original on December 13, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
"Crustacean". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 24 December 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-26.
"Bathynellacea (bathynellaceans)". Identification and Ecology of Australian Freshwater Invertebrates. Murray Darling Freshwater Research Centre. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
Jan Drewes & Horst Kurt Schminke (2011). "Number of families within Bathynellacea (Malacostraca) and year of publication of their names, with redescription of Baicalobathynella magna (Bazikalova, 1954) from Lake Baikal". Crustaceana. 84 (11): 1377–1401. doi:10.1163/001121611X590120.

Biology Encyclopedia

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