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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Trichoptera
Subordo: Annulipalpia
Superfamiliae: Hydropsychoidea - †Necrotaulioidea - Philopotamoidea - Rhyacophiloidea

Name

Annulipalpia Martynov 1924
Vernacular names
English: Caddisflies
中文: 环须亚目

The Annulipalpia, also known as the "fixed-retreat makers", are a suborder of Trichoptera, the caddisflies.[1] The name of the suborder refers to the flexible terminal segment of the adult maxillary palps, which often has many tiny rings.

The larvae construct fixed retreats in freshwater aquatic environments in which they remain stationary, waiting for food to come to them. Members of the Psychomyiidae, Ecnomidae and Xiphocentronidae families construct simple tubes of sand and other particles held together by silk and anchored to the bottom, and feed on the accumulations of silt formed when suspended material is deposited on the substrate.[2] Some of the families are unique in spinning silken nets for filter feeding.
References

Glenn B. Wiggins, Larvae of the North American Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera), 2nd. ed. (Toronto: University Press, 1996), p. 117
Wiggins, Glenn B. (2015). "1.3". Caddisflies: The Underwater Architects. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-4426-5617-8.

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