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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladi: Endopterygota - Paraneoptera - incertae sedis
[list of cladi after Grimaldi & Engel (2005: 147, table 4.1)]
Overview of orders

Coleoptera - Diptera - Hemiptera - Hymenoptera - Lepidoptera - "Mecoptera" - Megaloptera - Neuroptera - Phthiraptera - "Psocoptera" - Raphidioptera - Siphonaptera - Skleroptera - Strepsiptera - Thysanoptera - Trichoptera - †Glosselytrodea - †Miomoptera
[list of ordines after Grimaldi & Engel (2005: 147, table 4.1)]


Grimaldi, D.; Engel, M.S. 2005: Evolution of the insects. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA. limited preview on Google books

Eumetabola is an unranked clade of Neoptera. Two large unities known as the Paurometabola and Eumetabola are probably from the adelphotaxa of the Neoptera after exclusion of the Plecoptera. The monophyly of these unities appears to be weakly justified.[1]

Eumetabola has the highest number of species of any clade. According to recent molecular phylogenetic analyses Eumetabola could have first appeared in Middle Devonian (391 million years ago) to the era of late Pennsylvania (311 million years ago). In addition to this, it would have also appeared in Hemiptera (310 million years ago).

The phylogeny of Eumetabola is shown in the cladogram according to Kluge 2004, 2010, and 2012:[2][3][4]


Idioprothoraca Embia major hor.png

Rhipineoptera Gryllidae usda.png


Zoraptera (angel insects) Zorotypus guineensis (white background).jpg


Thysanoptera (thrips) Thrips (PSF) (white background).png

Hemiptera (bugs) Dorisiana bicolor MHNT, Montsinéry, Guyane dos vol 2.jpg


Psocoptera (bark lice) Psocoptera (white background).jpg

Phthiraptera (lice) Lice Body (cropped).png


Coleoptera (beetles) Pseudacrossus przewalskyi (Reitter, 1887).jpg

Strepsiptera (twisted-wing parasites) Elenchus koebelei.jpg


Neuroptera (net-winged insects) Osmylus (white background).jpg

Raphidioptera (snakeflies) Raphidia icon.png

Megaloptera (alderflies, dobsonflies, fishflies) Corydalus cornutus illustration (rotated).png


Diptera (true flies) Common house fly, Musca domestica.jpg

Mecoptera (scorpionflies) Scorpionfly (white background).jpg

Boreidae (snow scorpionflies) Boreus hiemalis2 detail.jpg

Siphonaptera (fleas) Pulex irritans female ZSM (white background).jpg


Trichoptera (caddisflies) RHYACOPHILA DORSALIS Male Pont Forge de Sailly Watigny 02 MHNT.jpg

Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) Arctia villica SLU.JPG

Hymenoptera (sawflies, wasps, ants, bees) European wasp white bg.jpg


Paurometabola — Eumetabola
Kluge, Nikita J. (2004). "Larval/pupal leg transformation and a new diagnosis for the taxon Metabola Burmeister, 1832 = Oligoneoptera Martynov, 1923" (PDF). Russian Entomological Journal. 13 (4): 189–229.
Kluge, Nikita J. (2010). "Circumscriptional names of higher taxa in Hexapoda" (PDF). Bionomina. 1: 15–55. doi:10.11646/bionomina.1.1.3.
Kluge, Nikita J. (2012). "General System of Neoptera with Description of a New Species of Embioptera" (PDF). Russian Entomological Journal. 21 (4): 371–384. doi:10.15298/rusentj.21.4.03.

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