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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Paraneoptera
Superordo: Psocodea
Ordo: Psocoptera
Subordo: Troctomorpha
Infraordines (2): Amphientometae – Nanopsocetae

Troctomorpha Roesler, 1940

Roesler R., 1940. Neue und wenig bekannte Copeognathengattungen. I. Zoologischer Anzeiger 129(9/10):225–243., page: 235.

Vernacular names
français: Troctomorphes

Zicha, Ondřej et al. Troctomorpha – Taxon details on Biological Library (BioLib).
Troctomorpha – Taxon details on Encyclopedia of Life (EOL).
Troctomorpha – Taxon details on Fauna Europaea.
Troctomorpha – Taxon details on Paleobiology Database.
Troctomorpha – Taxon details on Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
Troctomorpha – Taxon details on National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
Troctomorpha – Taxon details on New Zealand Organisms Register (NZOR).
Troctomorpha - Taxon details on Psocodea Species File.

Troctomorpha is one of the three major suborders of Psocodea (formerly Psocoptera)[1][2](barklice, booklice, and parasitic lice), alongside Psocomorpha and Trogiomorpha. There are more than 30 families and 5,800 described species in Troctomorpha.[3][4][1] The order includes parasitic lice, which are most closely related to the booklice family Liposcelididae.


Cladogram showing the position of Troctomorpha within Psocodea:[5]





















Prionoglaridetae (paraphyletic)

Fossil record

The oldest record of the suborder is suggested to be Paramesopsocus adibi, known from the Late Jurassic Karabastau Formation of Kazakhstan.[6][7]

Troctomorpha contains the following subgroups:[1]

  • Infraorder: Amphientometae
    • Family: Amphientomidae Enderlein, 1903 (tropical barklice)
    • Family: Compsocidae Mockford, 1967
    • Family: Electrentomidae Enderlein, 1911
    • Family: Manicapsocidae Mockford, 1967
    • Family: Musapsocidae Mockford, 1967
    • Family: Protroctopsocidae Smithers, 1972
    • Family: Troctopsocidae Mockford, 1967
  • Infraorder: Nanopsocetae
    • Family: Liposcelididae Broadhead, 1950 (booklice)
    • Family: Pachytroctidae Enderlein, 1904 (thick barklice)
    • Family: Sphaeropsocidae Menon, 1941
    • Parvorder: Phthiraptera
      • Superfamily: Amblycera
        • Family: Ancistronidae
        • Family: Boopiidae Mjoberg, 1910
        • Family: Colpocephalidae Eichler, 1937
        • Family: Gliricolidae
        • Family: Gyropidae Kellogg, 1896
        • Family: Laemobothriidae Mjoberg, 1910
        • Family: Menoponidae Mjoberg, 1910 (chicken body lice)
        • Family: Pseudomenoponidae Mjoberg, 1910
        • Family: Ricinidae Neumann, 1890
        • Family: Somaphantidae Eichler, 1941
        • Family: Trimenoponidae
        • Family: Trinotonidae Eichler, 1941
      • Superfamily: Anoplura
        • Family: Echinophthiriidae Enderlein, 1904 (seal lice)
        • Family: Enderleinellidae Ewing, 1929
        • Family: Haematopinidae Enderlein, 1904 (ungulate lice)
        • Family: Hamophthiriidae Johnson, 1969
        • Family: Hoplopleuridae Ewing, 1929 (armoured lice)
        • Family: Hybothiridae Ewing, 1929
        • Family: Linognathidae Webb, 1946 (pale lice)
        • Family: Microthoraciidae Kim & Lugwig, 1978
        • Family: Neolinognathidae Fahrenholz, 1936
        • Family: Pecaroecidae Kéler, 1963
        • Family: Pedicinidae Enderlein, 1904
        • Family: Pediculidae Leach, 1817 (body lice, head lice)
        • Family: Polyplacidae Fahrenholz, 1912 (spiny rat lice)
        • Family: Pthiridae Ewing, 1929 (crab lice or pubic lice)
        • Family: Ratemiidae Kim & Lugwig, 1978
      • Superfamily: Ischnocera (paraphyletic)
        • Family: Bovicolidae
        • Family: Dasyonygidae
        • Family: Goniodidae
        • Family: Heptapsogasteridae
        • Family: Lipeuridae
        • Family: Philopteridae Nitzsch, 1818 (paraphyletic)
        • Family: Trichodectidae
        • Family: Trichophilopteridae
      • Superfamily: Rhyncophthirina
        • Family: Haematomyzidae Enderlein, 1904


Johnson, Kevin P.; Smith, Vincent S. (2021). "Psocodea species file online, Version 5.0". Retrieved 2021-11-05.
Bess, Emilie; Smith, Vince; Lienhard, Charles; Johnson, Kevin P. (2006). "Psocodea". Tree of Life. Retrieved 2019-06-14.
"Troctomorpha Report". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2019-05-04.
"Troctomorpha suborder Information". Retrieved 2019-05-04.
de Moya, Robert S; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Walden, Kimberly K O; Sweet, Andrew D; Dietrich, Christopher H; Kevin P, Johnson (2021-06-16). Buckley, Thomas (ed.). "Phylogenomics of Parasitic and Nonparasitic Lice (Insecta: Psocodea): Combining Sequence Data and Exploring Compositional Bias Solutions in Next Generation Data Sets". Systematic Biology. 70 (4): 719–738. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syaa075. ISSN 1063-5157.
Azar, Dany; Hajar, Lara; Indary, Chadi; Nel, André (January 2008). "Paramesopsocidae, a new Mesozoic psocid family (Insecta: Psocodea "Psocoptera": Psocomorpha)". Annales de la Société entomologique de France (N.S.). 44 (4): 459–470. doi:10.1080/00379271.2008.10697581. ISSN 0037-9271.

Mockford, Edward L.; Lienhard, Charles; Yoshizawa, Kazunori (October 2013). "Revised classification of 'Psocoptera' from Cretaceous amber, a reassessment of published information". Insecta matsumurana. New series : journal of the Faculty of Agriculture Hokkaido University, series entomology. 69: 1–26. ISSN 0020-1804.

Further reading

Lyal, Ch H. C. (1985). "Phylogeny and classification of the Psocodea, with particular reference to the lice (Psocodea: Phthiraptera)". Systematic Entomology. 10 (2): 145–165. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.1985.tb00525.x. ISSN 0307-6970.

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