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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Superclassis: Multicrustacea
Classis: Malacostraca
Subclassis: Eumalacostraca
Superordo: Peracarida
Ordo: Tanaidacea
Subordines: Apseudomorpha - Neotanaidomorpha - Tanaidomorpha - †Anthracocaridomorpha


Bamber, R.N. 2008: Tanaidaceans (Crustacea: Peracarida: Tanaidacea) from Moreton Bay, Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum - Nature 54(1): 143–217. Full article (PDF) Reference page.
Bamber, R.N. 2013: Tanaidaceans from Brunei, IV. The Families Kalliapseudidae, Pagurapseudopsidae, Parapseudidae and Apseudidae (Crustacea: Peracarida: Tanaidacea: Apseudomorpha), with descriptions of a new genus and six new species. Zootaxa 3734(4): 401–441. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3734.4.1 Reference page.
Bamber, R.N.; Bird, G.; Błażewicz-Paszkowycz, M.; Galil, B. 2009: Tanaidaceans (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Peracarida) from soft-sediment habitats off Israel, Eastern Mediterranean. Zootaxa, 2109: 1–44. Abstract & excerpt
Bamber, R.N.; Chatterjee, T.; Marshall, D.J. 2012: Inshore apseudomorph tanaidaceans (Crustacea: Peracarida) from Brunei: new records and new species. Zootaxa 3520: 71–88. Preview Reference page.
Dana, J.D., (1849). Conspectus Crustaceorum. Conspectus of the Crustacea of the Exploring Expedition.-- American Journal of Science and Arts, Series 2, 8:424-428.
Drumm, D.T. & Bird, G.J. 2016. New deep-sea Paratanaoidea (Crustacea: Peracarida: Tanaidacea) from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Zootaxa 4154(4): 389–414. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4154.4.2. Reference page.
Jakiel, A., Stępień, A., Jóżwiak, P., Serigstad, B. & Blazewicz-Paszkowycz, M. 2015. First record of Tanaidacea (Crustacea) from a deep-sea coral reef in the Gulf of Guinea. Zootaxa 3995(1): 203–228. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3995.1.18. Preview (PDF) Reference page.
Jaume, D.; Boxshall, G.A. 2008: Global diversity of cumaceans & tanaidaceans (Crustacea: Cumacea & Tanaidacea) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia, 595: 225–230.
Larsen, K. 2012. Tanaidacea (Crustacea) from Macaronesia II. The deep-water fauna from the Azores archipelago, Portugal. Zootaxa 3250: 26–42. Preview Reference page.
Piazza, P. et al. 2014: Distributional records of Ross Sea (Antarctica) Tanaidacea from museum samples stored in the collections of the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA) and the New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). ZooKeys 451: 49–60. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.451.8373 Reference page.

Vernacular names
中文: 原足目

The crustacean order Tanaidacea (known as tanaids) make up a minor group within the class Malacostraca. There are about 940 species in this order.

Tanaids are small, shrimp-like creatures ranging from 0.5 to 120 millimetres (0.020 to 4.7 in) in adult size, with most species being from 2 to 5 millimetres (0.08 to 0.2 in). Their carapace covers the first two segments of the thorax. There are three pairs of limbs on the thorax; a small pair of maxillipeds, a pair of large clawed gnathopods, and a pair of pereiopods adapted for burrowing into the mud. Unusually among crustaceans, the remaining six thoracic segments have no limbs at all, but each of the first five abdominal segments normally carry pleopods. The final segment is fused with the telson and carries a pair of uropods.[1]

The gills lie on the inner surface of the carapace. The thoracic limbs wash water towards the mouth, filtering out small particles of food with the mouthparts or maxillipeds. Some species actively hunt prey, either as their only food source, or in combination with filter feeding.[1]

Most are marine, but some are also found in freshwater coastal habitat or estuaries. The majority of species are bottom-dwellers in shallow water environments, but a few live in very deep water, exceeding for some species 9,000 metres (30,000 ft). In some deep sea environment, they represent the most abundant and diverse fauna to be found.
Life cycle

Tanaids do not undergo a true planktonic stage. The early developmental period is spent while young are within the marsupium of the mother. Subsequently, post-larvae, called mancas, emerge as epibenthic forms. Some species are hermaphroditic.[1]

The order Tanaidacea is divided into the following sub-orders, superfamilies and families:[2]

Suborder Anthracocaridomorpha †
Family Anthracocarididae † Brooks, 1962 emend. Schram, 1979
Family Niveotanaidae † Polz, 2005

Suborder Apseudomorpha
Superfamily Apseudoidea Leach, 1814 (incl. former superfamily Jurapseudoidea[3])
Family Apseudellidae Gutu, 1972
Family Apseudidae Leach, 1814
Family Eucryptocaridae Heard et al. 2020
Family Gigantapseudidae Kudinova-Pasternak, 1978
Family Jurapseudidae † Schram, Sieg & Malzahn, 1986
Family Kalliapseudidae Lang, 1956
Family Metapseudidae Lang, 1970
Family Numbakullidae Gutu & Heard, 2002
Family Ophthalmapseudidae Heard et al. 2020
Family Pagurapseudidae Lang, 1970
Family Pagurapseudopsididae Gutu, 2006
Family Parapseudidae Gutu, 1981
Family Protoapseudoidae Heard et al. 2020
Family Sphaeromapseudidae Larsen, 2012
Family Sphyrapodidae Gutu, 1980
Family Tanzanapseudidae Bacescu, 1975
Family Whiteleggiidae Gutu, 1972
Genus Palaeotanais † Reiff, 1936

Superfamily Cretitanaoidea † Schram, Sieg, Malzahn, 1983
Family Cretitanaidae † Schram, Sieg & Malzahn, 1986

Suborder Tanaidomorpha
Superfamily Neotanaoidea Sieg, 1980
Family Neotanaidae Lang, 1956
Superfamily Paratanaoidea Lang, 1949
Family Agathotanaidae Lang, 1971
Family Akanthophoreidae Sieg, 1986
Family Alavatanaidae † Vonk & Schram, 2007
Family Anarthruridae Lang, 1971
Family Colletteidae Larsen & Wilson, 2002
Family Cryptocopidae Sieg, 1977
Family Heterotanoididae Bird, 2012
Family Leptocheliidae Lang, 1973
Family Leptognathiidae Sieg, 1976
Family Mirandotanaidae Blazewicz-Paszkowycz & Bamber, 2009
Family Nototanaidae Sieg, 1976
Family Paratanaidae Lang, 1949
Family Paratanaoidea incertae sedis
Family Pseudotanaidae Sieg, 1976
Family Pseudozeuxidae Sieg, 1982
Family Tanaellidae Larsen & Wilson, 2002
Family Tanaissuidae Bird & Larsen, 2009
Family Tanaopsidae Błażewicz-Paszkowycz & Bamber, 2012
Family Teleotanaidae Bamber, 2008
Family Typhlotanaidae Sieg, 1984
Superfamily Tanaidoidea Nobili, 1906
Family Tanaididae Nobili, 1906


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Barnes, Robert D. (1982). Invertebrate Zoology. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 768–769. ISBN 0-03-056747-5.
WoRMS (2018). "Tanaidacea". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
Richard W. Heard; Andrés G. Morales-Núñez; María de Lourdes Serrano-Sánchez; Marco A. Coutiño; Ricardo Barragán; Francisco J. Vega (2020). "A new family, genus and species of Tanaidacea (Crustacea; Apseudomorpha) from the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) of Chiapas, Mexico: Systematic revisions , including designation of two new Paleozoic families, and paleoenvironmental observations". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 102: Article 102609. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2020.102609.


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