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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Superclassis: Multicrustacea
Classis: Tantulocarida
Familiae (5): Basipodellidae - Deoterthridae - Doryphallophoridae - Microdajidae - Onceroxenidae


Boxshall, G.A.; Lincoln, R.J. 1983: Tantulocarida, a new class of Crustacea ectoparasitic on other crustaceans. Journal of crustacean biology, 3: 1–16.
Knudsen, S.W.; Kirkegaard, M.; Olesen, J. 2009: The tantulocarid genus Arcticotantalus removed from Basipodellidae into Deoterthridae (Crustacea: Maxillopoda) after the description of a new species from Greenland, with first live photographs and an overview of the class. Zootaxa, 2035: 41–68. PDF

Vernacular names
Ελληνικά: Ταντουλοκαρίδες
English: tantulocaridans
中文: 微虾亚纲

Tantulocarida is a highly specialised group of parasitic crustaceans that consists of about 33 species, treated as a class in superclass Multicrustacea. They are typically ectoparasites that infest copepods, isopods, tanaids, amphipods and ostracods.[2][3]

Eyes are completely absent.[4]
Body length

Members of this subclass are minute – less than 0.3 millimetres (0.012 in) in length and have a dramatic reduction in body form compared to other crustaceans, with an unsegmented, sac-like thorax and a much reduced abdomen.[5] One tantulocarid species, Tantulacus dieteri, is the world's smallest arthropod, with a total body length of only 85 micrometres (0.0033 in).[6]
Life cycle

The tantulocarid life cycle is unique among crustaceans. The tantulus larva transforms directly from a non-feeding (lecithotrophic) and free-swimming organism into a parasite without any instars. When entering the parasitic stage much of the body, such as the muscles, degenerates, even if the body itself becomes bigger. As a parasite it is permanently attached to its host, and after piercing its host's cuticle with an unpaired stylet, a rootlet system used to absorb nutrients enters through the hole and grow into the host’s tissue. The adult form devlopes inside the larva, and can become either a sac-like parthenogenetic female, or a fully developed free-living, non-feeding and sexually-reproducing male or female.[7][8][9][10][11] The eggs inside the parthenogenetic female are eventually released as fully developed tantulus larvae. The finding of what appears to be a benthic non-feeding nauplius larva suggests that eggs produced by sexual females hatch as nauplii instead of tantulus larvae. Both the parthenogenetic and sexual females are semelparous.[12]

Five families are recognised:[13]

Basipodellidae Boxshall & Lincoln, 1983:[14]

Basipodella Becker, 1975
Hypertantulus Ohtsuka & Boxshall, 1998
Nipponotantulus Huys, Ohtsuka & Boxshall, 1994
Polynyapodella Huys, Møberg & Kristensen, 1997
Rimitantulus Huys & Conroy-Dalton, 1997
Serratotantulus Savchenko & Kolbasov, 2009
Stygotantulus Boxshall & Huys, 1989

Doryphallophoridae Huys, 1991:[15]

Doryphallophora Huys, 1990
Paradoryphallophora Ohtsuka & Boxshall, 1998

Microdajidae Boxshall & Lincoln, 1987:[16]

Microdajus Greve, 1965
Xenalytus Huys, 1991

Cumoniscidae Nierstrasz & Brender à Brandis, 1923 (formerly family Deoterthridae:[17]

Amphitantulus Boxshall & Vader, 1993
Aphotocentor Huys, 1991
Arcticotantulus Kornev, Tchesunov & Rybnikov, 2004
Boreotantulus Huys & Boxshall, 1988
Campyloxiphos Huys, 1991
Coralliotantulus Huys, 1991
Cumoniscus Bonnier, 1903
Deoterthron Bradford & Hewitt, 1980
Dicrotrichura Huys, 1989
Itoitantulus Huys, Ohtsuka Boxshall & Itô, 1992
Tantulacus Huys, Andersen & Kristensen, 1992

Onceroxenidae Huys, 1991:[18]

Onceroxenus Boxshall & Lincoln, 1987


"Tantulocarida". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
"WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Tantulocarida". Retrieved 2019-06-28.
Geoffrey A. Boxshall & Roger J. Lincoln (February 1983). "Tantulocarida, a new class of Crustacea ectoparasitic on other crustaceans". Journal of Crustacean Biology. 3 (1): 1–16. doi:10.2307/1547849. JSTOR 1547849.
Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the independent evolutionary origin of an arthropod compound eye - NCBI
"Tantulocarida". AccessScience Encyclopedia. McGraw-Hill. Archived from the original on 2011-06-17. Retrieved 2016-09-10.
Inga Mohrbeck, Pedro Martínez Arbizu & Thomas Glatzel (October 2010). "Tantulocarida (Crustacea) from the Southern Ocean deep sea, and the description of three new species of Tantulacus Huys, Andersen & Kristensen, 1992". Systematic Parasitology. 77 (2): 131–151. doi:10.1007/s11230-010-9260-0. PMID 20852984. S2CID 7325858.
G. A. Boxshall & R. J. Lincoln (June 11, 1987). "The life cycle of the Tantulocarida (Crustacea)". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 315 (1173): 267–303. doi:10.1098/rstb.1987.0009. JSTOR 2396610.
Anatomy of the free tantulus larva (Crustacea: Tantulocarida) studied with confocal laser scanning microscopy: An extreme case of miniatuarisation in the Arthropoda
Itoitantulus misophricola gen. et sp. nov.: First Record of Tantulocarida (Crustacea: Maxillopoda) in the North Pacific Region
Tantulocaridan Life Cycle: the Circle Closed? - Oxford Academic
Anatomy of the Tantulocarida: first results obtained using TEM and CLSM. Part I: tantulus larva - GfBS
Atlas of Crustacean Larvae
WoRMS. "Tantulocarida". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 13 December 2022.
Geoff Boxshall (August 20, 2008). T. Chad Walter & Geoff Boxshall (ed.). "Basipodellidae". World Copepoda database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2016-09-10.
Geoff Boxshall (August 20, 2008). T. Chad Walter & Geoff Boxshall (ed.). "Doryphallophoridae". World Copepoda database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2016-09-10.
Geoff Boxshall (August 20, 2008). T. Chad Walter & Geoff Boxshall (ed.). "Microdajidae". World Copepoda database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2016-09-10.
WoRMS. "Cumoniscidae Nierstrasz & Brender à Brandis, 1923". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 13 December 2022.
Geoff Boxshall (2012). Walter TC, Boxshall G (eds.). "Onceroxenidae". World of Copepods database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2016-09-10.


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