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Bufo viridis

Bufo viridis (*)

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Amphibia
Subclassis: Lissamphibia
Ordo: Anura
Subordo: Neobatrachia
Familia: Bufonidae
Genus: Bufo
Species: Bufo viridis


Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768

Type locality: "inter fissuras, seu cavernas murorum obscuras Viennae", Austria.

Holotype: Including frog figured on pl. 1, fig. 1 of original publication.


* Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768
* Rana sitibunda Pallas, 1771
* Buffo viridi-radiatus Lacépède, 1788
* Bufo sitibundus — Schneider, 1799
* Bufo cursor Daudin, 1803
* Rana picta Pallas, 1814
* Bufo schreberi — Oken, 1816
* Bufo roseus Merrem, 1820
* Bufo longipes Bonaparte, 1840

* Pseudepidalea viridis

if one recognizes the opinionated splitting of the genus Bufo by Frost et al. (2006)


* Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 27.
* Frost, Darrel R. 2007. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.1 (10 October, 2007). Electronic Database accessible at [1] American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Pseudepidalea viridis . Accessed on 07 Apr 2008.
* World Conservation Monitoring Centre IUCN link: Pseudepidalea viridis (Least Concern) (as Bufo viridis)

Vernacular names
Ελληνικά : Πρασινόφρυνος, Ζάμπα
English: European green Toad


The European green toad (Bufo viridis or Pseudepidalea virdis) is a toad found in mainland Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa. They live in many areas, including steppes, mountainous areas, semi-deserts, and urban areas. There are variations in the colors and patterns of these toads across their range. The spots on their backs are usually anything from green to dark brown and sometimes red spots appear, too. Most toads have white or very lightly colored stomachs.

The toads eat a variety of insects and invertebrates, mainly crickets, meal worms, small butterflies, earthworms, moths, beetles and caterpillars.

These toads will change their color in response to heat and light changes, but to a greater degree than others. Also similar to other toads, the European Green Toad has glands behind its neck that secrete a toxin when the toad is threatened. Female toads are larger than males and can lay 9,000 to 15,000 eggs at a time. They can reach a maximum size of 6 inches, but growth to this size is rare.


* Stöck, Matthias; Craig Moritz, Michael Hickerson, Daniel Frynta, Tatjana Dujsebayeva, Valery Eremchenko, J. Robert Macey, Theodore J. Papenfuss and David B. Wake (02-06-06). "Evolution of mitochondrial relationships and biogeography of Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) with insights in their genomic plasticity". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41 (3): 663–689.
* Stöck, Matthias; Alessandra Sicilia, Natalia M Belfiore, David Buckley, Sabrina Lo Brutto, Mario Lo Valvo, Marco Arculeo (23-02-08). "Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: Mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives". BMC Evolutionary Biology 56 (8). ISSN 1471-2148. OCLC 47657384. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/8/56.
* "IUCN Red List - Pseudepidalea virdis (Green Toad)". http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/155333/0/full. Retrieved 2009-09-12.

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Source: Wikispecies, Wikipedia: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License