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Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris

Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Euornithes
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Ornithurae
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Parvordo: Corvida
Superfamilia: Meliphagoidea

Familia: Meliphagidae
Genus: Acanthorhynchus
Species: Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris
Subspecies: A. t. cairnsensis – A. t. dubius – A. t. halmaturinus – A. t. loftyi – A. t. regius – A. t. tenuirostris – A. t. trochiloides
Name

Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris (Latham, 1802)
References

Supplementum indicis ornithologici p.xxxvi
IUCN: Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris Latham, 1801 (Least Concern)

Vernacular names
English: Eastern Spinebill
español: Pico de espina oriental

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The Eastern Spinebill, Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris, is a species of honeyeater found in south-eastern Australia in forest and woodland areas, as well as gardens in urban areas of Sydney and Melbourne. It is around 15 cm long, and has a distinctive black, white and chestnut plumage, a red eye, and a long downcurved bill.


Taxonomy

Originally described as Certhia tenuirostris by ornithologist John Latham in 1802,[2] it is a member of the small genus Acanthorhynchus with one other, the Western Spinebill of Western Australia. The generic name is derived from the Greek translation of its common name, namely acantho-/ακανθο- "spine" and rhynchos/ρυνχος "bill".[3] Its specific name is from Latin tenuis "narrow" and rostrum billed. It belongs to the honeyeater family Meliphagidae. More recently, DNA analysis has shown honeyeaters to be related to the Pardalotidae, and the Petroicidae (Australian robins) in a large corvid superfamily; some researchers considering all these families in a broadly defined Corvidae.

Description

13–16 cm (5–6 in) long, the male Eastern Spinebill has a long thin downcurved black bill with a black head, white throat with a reddish patch and red iris. It has a brownish-red nape, a grey brown back and pale cinnamon underparts. The dark tail is tipped with white laterally. Females and juveniles are smaller and duller. The call is a rapid piping.[4]

Melbourne

Distribution and habitat

Eastern Spinebills are found in dry sclerophyll forest, scrub and heathland from the Cooktown area in North Queensland south through New South Wales east of the Great Dividing Range, through Victoria and into the Flinders Ranges in eastern South Australia as well as throughout Tasmania. Adaptable, they can be found in urban gardens with sufficient vegetation to act as cover and a food source.

Reproduction

breeding season enludes everything

Diet

The Eastern Spinebill feeds on nectar from many plants, including the blooms of gum trees, mistletoes Amyema spp., Epacris longiflora,[5] Epacris impressa(common heath), Correa reflexa, and various members of the Proteaceae such as Banksia ericifolia,[6] Banksia integrifolia, Lambertia formosa and Grevillea speciosa, as well as small insects and other invertebrates. A 1982 study in the New England National Park in North-eastern New South Wales found that there was a large influx of birds coinciding with the start of flowering of Banksia spinulosa there.[5] They have been known to feed from exotic plants such as Fuchsias.[7]

References

1. ^ BirdLife International (2008). Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 19 February 2009.
2. ^ Latham, J. (1802). Supplementum Indicis Ornithologici, sive Systematis Ornithologiae. London: G. Leigh, J. & S. Sotheby 74 pp. [36]
3. ^ Liddell, Henry George and Robert Scott (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-910207-4.
4. ^ Simpson K, Day N, Trusler P (1993). Field Guide to the Birds of Australia. Ringwood, Victoria: Viking O'Neil. p. 392. ISBN 0-670-90478-3.
5. ^ a b Ford HA & Pursey JF. (1982)Status and feeding of the Eastern Spinebill Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris at the New England National Park, North-eastern NSW. Emu 82(4) 203 - 211
6. ^ Paton, D.C.; V. Turner (1985). "Pollination of Banksia ericifolia Smith: Birds, mammals and insects as pollen vectors". Australian Journal of Botany 33 (3): 271–286. doi:10.1071/BT9850271.
7. ^ Australian Museum (2006). "Bird Finder - Eastern Spinebill". Birds in Backyards. Australian Museum. http://birdsinbackyards.net/finder/display.cfm?id=109. Retrieved 2007-06-26.

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