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Anas superciliosa

Anas superciliosa (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Pangalloanserae
Cladus: Galloanseres
Ordo: Anseriformes

Familia: Anatidae
Genus: Anas
Species: Anas superciliosa
Subspecies: A. s. pelewensis – A. s. superciliosa

Anas superciliosa J. F. Gmelin, 1789

Systema Naturae 1 (2): 537.

Vernacular names
Bislama: Waeldakdak
català: Ànec cellut
čeština: Kachna proužkovaná
Cymraeg: Hwyaden ddu’r Môr Tawel
Deutsch: Augenbrauenente
English: Pacific Black Duck
Esperanto: Pacifika brovanaso
español: Pato negro del Pacífico
فارسی: مرغابی سیاه آرام
suomi: Juovanaamasorsa
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Ganiviti
français: Canard à sourcils
magyar: Szemöldökös réce
italiano: Germano del Pacifico
日本語: マミジロカルガモ
Māori: Pārera
Plattdüütsch: Ogenbroenaante
Nederlands: Wenkbrauweend
norsk nynorsk: Stripeand
norsk: Stripeand
polski: Kaczka pacyficzna
русский: Серая кряква
svenska: Stillahavssvartand
lea faka-Tonga: Toloa
Tiếng Việt: Vịt đen Thái Bình Dương
中文: 太平洋黑鴨

The Pacific black duck (Anas superciliosa), commonly known as the PBD, is a dabbling duck found in much of Indonesia, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and many islands in the southwestern Pacific, reaching to the Caroline Islands in the north and French Polynesia in the east. It is usually called the grey duck in New Zealand, where it is also known by its Maori name, pārera.

1 Taxonomy
2 Description
3 Behaviour
3.1 Breeding
3.2 Feeding
4 Conservation status
5 Various views and plumages
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links


The Pacific black duck was formally described in 1789 by the German naturalist Johann Friedrich Gmelin in his revised and expanded edition of Carl Linnaeus's Systema Naturae. He placed it with all the other ducks, geese and swans in the genus Anas and coined the binomial name Anas superciliosa.[2] Gmelin based his description on the "Supercilious duck" that had been described in 1785 by the English ornithologist John Latham in his A General Synopsis of Birds. The naturalist Joseph Banks had provided Latham with a drawing of the duck from New Zealand.[3][4] The genus name Anas is the Latin word for a duck. The specific epithet superciliosa is from Latin meaning "supercilious" or "eye-browed", a reference to the prominent supercilium or eye-stripe.[5]

Two subspecies are now recognised:[6]

A. s. pelewensis Hartlaub & Finsch, 1872 – island black duck, breeds on the southwest Pacific islands and northern New Guinea
A. s. superciliosa Gmelin, JF, 1789 − Australasian duck, breeds in Indonesia, southern New Guinea, Australia and New Zealand, where it is known as the grey duck or pārera.[7]

A third subspecies, rogersi from Australia, has sometimes been recognised but it not distinguishable either genetically or phenotypically from the nominate race.[7]

This sociable duck is found in a variety of wetland habitats, and its nesting habits are much like those of the mallard, which is encroaching on its range in New Zealand.[8] It feeds by upending, like other Anas ducks.

It has a dark body, and a paler head with a dark crown and facial stripes. In flight, it shows a green speculum and pale underwing. All plumages are similar. The size range is 54–61 cm; males tend to be larger than females, and some island forms are smaller and darker than the main populations.[9] It is not resident on the Marianas islands, but sometimes occurs there during migration. The now-extinct Mariana mallard was probably originally derived from hybrids between this species and the mallard, which came to the islands during migration and settled there.

Like its relatives the mallard and American black duck, the Pacific black duck is one of a number of duck species that can quack, with the female producing a sequence of raucous, rapid quacking which decreases in volume.[10]

The nest is usually placed in a hole in a tree, but sometimes an old nest of covid is used and occasionally the nest will be placed on the ground. The clutch of 8–10 pale cream eggs is incubated only by the female. The eggs hatch after 26–32 days. The precocial downy ducklings leave the nest site when dry and are cared for by the female. They can fly when around 58 days of age.[11]

The Pacific black duck is mainly vegetarian, feeding on seeds of aquatic plants. This diet is supplemented with small crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic insects. Food is obtained by 'dabbling', where the bird plunges its head and neck underwater and upends, raising its rear end vertically out of the water. Occasionally, food is sought on land in damp grassy areas.[12]
Conservation status

The Pacific black duck has declined sharply in numbers in New Zealand and several Australian islands due to competition from and hybridisation with the introduced mallard.[13] Rhymer et al. (1994) say their data "points to the eventual loss of identity of the grey duck as a separate species in New Zealand, and the subsequent dominance of a hybrid swarm akin to the Mariana Mallard." Studies of their three species of parasitic feather lice support this prediction.[14] This same impact is occurring in many areas of Australia, Tasmania and Adelaide in particular.

It was assumed that far more mallard drakes mate with grey duck females than vice versa based on the fact that most hybrids show a mallard-type plumage, but this is not correct; it appears that the mallard phenotype is dominant, and that the degree to which species contributed to a hybrid's ancestry cannot be determined from the plumage.[15] The main reasons for displacement of the grey duck seem to be physical dominance of the larger mallards, combined with a marked population decline of the grey duck due to overhunting in the mid-20th century.[16]

See also

Dalvirus anatis


BirdLife International (2016). "Anas superciliosa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22680217A92849931. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22680217A92849931.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
Gmelin, Johann Friedrich (1789). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae : secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin). Vol. 1, Part 2 (13th ed.). Lipsiae [Leipzig]: Georg. Emanuel. Beer. p. 537.
Latham, John (1785). A General Synopsis of Birds. Vol. 3, Part 2. London: Printed for Leigh and Sotheby. p. 497, No. 45.
Mayr, Ernst; Cottrell, G. William, eds. (1979). Check-List of Birds of the World. Vol. 1 (2nd ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 472.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 46, 374. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (January 2022). "Screamers, ducks, geese & swans". IOC World Bird List Version 12.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
"Grey duck | Pārera | New Zealand Birds Online". Retrieved 2022-06-24.
Rhymer, Judith M. & Simberloff, Daniel (1996). "Extinction by hybridization and introgression". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 27: 83–109. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.27.1.83.
Madge, Steve; Burn, Hilary (1988). Waterfowl: an Identification Guide to the Ducks, Geese, and Swans of the World. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-46727-6.
"Anas superciliosa, Pacific Black Duck". Museums Victoria Collections. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
Marchant, S.; Higgins, P.G., eds. (1990). "Anas superciliosa Pacific Black Duck" (PDF). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand & Antarctic Birds. Volume 1: Ratites to ducks; Part B, Australian pelican to ducks. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press. pp. 1320–1332. ISBN 978-0-19-553068-1.
"Pacific Black Duck". The Australian Museum. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
Gillespie, Grant D (1985). "Hybridization, introgression, and morphometric differentiation between Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Grey Duck (Anas superciliosa) in Otago, New Zealand" (PDF). The Auk. 102 (3): 459–469. doi:10.1093/auk/102.3.459.
Bulgarella, M (2018). "The ectoparasites of hybrid ducks in New Zealand (Mallard x Grey Duck)". International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife. 7 (3): 335–342. doi:10.1016/j.ijppaw.2018.09.005. PMC 6154467. PMID 30258780.
Rhymer, Judith M.; Williams, Murray J. & Braun, Michael J (1994). "Mitochondrial analysis of gene flow between New Zealand Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Grey Ducks (A. superciliosa)" (PDF). The Auk. 111 (4): 970–978. doi:10.2307/4088829. JSTOR 4088829.

Williams, Murray & Basse, Britta (2006). "Indigenous gray ducks, Anas superciliosa, and introduced mallards, A. platyrhynchos, in New Zealand: processes and outcome of a deliberate encounter". Acta Zoologica Sinica. 52 (Supplement): 579–582.

Further reading
Heather, Barrie D. & Robertson, Hugh A. (1996). The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Auckland: Viking. ISBN 0-670-86911-2.

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