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Aythya nyroca

Aythya nyroca (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Pangalloanserae
Cladus: Galloanseres
Ordo: Anseriformes

Familia: Anatidae
Subfamilia: Anatinae
Genus: Aythya
Species: Aythya nyroca

Aythya nyroca (Güldenstädt, 1770)

Anas nyroca (protonym)

Aythya nyroca

Aythya nyroca

Vernacular names
العربية: بطة حديدية
asturianu: Coríu Ferruñosu
অসমীয়া: কাকলি হাঁহ
azərbaycanca: Ağgöz dalğıc
башҡортса: Мәрйенгүҙ
беларуская: Белавокая чэрнець
български: Белоока потапница
brezhoneg: Morilhon gellruz
català: Morell xocolater
čeština: Polák malý
Cymraeg: Hwyaden gochddu
dansk: Hvidøjet and
Deutsch: Moorente
ދިވެހިބަސް: Rathu Reyru
Ελληνικά: Βαλτόπαπια
English: Ferruginous Duck
Esperanto: Blankokula anaso
español: Porrón pardo
eesti: Valgesilm-vart
euskara: Murgilari arre
فارسی: اردک بلوطی غواص
suomi: Ruskosotka
føroyskt: Hvítoygd ont
français: Fuligule nyroca
Gaeilge: Póiseard Súilbhán
galego: Morell xocolater
עברית: צולל ביצות
hrvatski: Patka njorka
magyar: Cigányréce
հայերեն: Սուզաբադ սպիտակաաչք
íslenska: Jarpönd
italiano: Moretta tabaccata
日本語: メジロガモ
ქართული: თეთრთვალა ყურყუმელა
қазақша: Алакөз сүңгуір
한국어: 적갈색흰죽지
lietuvių: Rudė
latviešu: Baltacis
македонски: Црн кожувар
മലയാളം: വെള്ളക്കണ്ണി എരണ്ട
монгол: Ундар шумбуур
Malti: Brajmla t' Għajnha Bajda
नेपाली: मालक हाँस
Nederlands: Witoogeend
norsk: Hvitøyeand
polski: Podgorzałka zwyczajna
پنجابی: فیروگینس بطخ
português: Zarro-castanho
rumantsch: Anda da palì
română: Rață roșie
русский: Белоглазый нырок
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Patka njorka - Патка њорка
slovenčina: Chochlačka bielooká
slovenščina: Kostanjevka
shqip: Kryekuqe e vogël
српски / srpski: Патка црнка (Patka crnka)
svenska: Vitögd dykand
Kiswahili: Bata Macho-meupe
தமிழ்: Vellai kan Kaliyan
ไทย: เป็ดดำหัวสีน้ำตาล
Türkçe: Pasbaş patka
українська: Чернь білоока
vèneto: Moreta
Tiếng Việt: Vịt nâu đỏ
中文: 白眼潜鸭

The ferruginous duck, also ferruginous pochard, common white-eye or white-eyed pochard (Aythya nyroca) is a medium-sized diving duck from Eurosiberia. The scientific name is derived from Greek aithuia an unidentified seabird mentioned by authors including Hesychius and Aristotle, and nyrok, the Russian name for a duck.[2]


The breeding male is a rich, dark chestnut on the head, breast and flanks with contrasting pure white undertail coverts. In flight the white belly and underwing patch are visible. The females are duller and browner than the males. The male has a yellow eye and the females have a dark eye.[3]

The ferruginous duck prefers quite shallow fresh waterbodies with rich submerged and floating vegetation with dense stands of emergent vegetation on the margins. In some areas it will use saline or brackish pools or wetlands. On passage and wintering will also frequent coastal waters, inland seas and large, open lagoons.[4]

The breeding range of the ferruginous duck is from Iberia and the Maghreb east to western Mongolia, south to Arabia, although in the west is now scarce and localised and locally extirpated in some countries. The duck winters throughout the Mediterranean Basin and the Black Sea, smaller number migrate into sub-Saharan Africa via the Nile Valley.[4] Eastern birds winter in south and south-east Asia.[5]

These are gregarious birds, but less social than other Aythya species but where common it can form large flocks in winter, often mixed with other diving ducks, such as tufted ducks and common pochards. Form pairs from January onwards and during courtship the male often curls his tail so that it dips into the water forming a triangular white patch of the undertail coverts. In areas where it is common it will form colonies at protected sites such as islands, often in association with gulls. Where scarce it nests singly, in dispersed and concealed sites.[4]

Eggs are laid from the end of April or early May in a nest which is sited on the ground close to water, or sometimes a floating nest is built among emergent vegetation. The eggs are incubated for 25–27 days and the fledging period is 55–60 days.[4]

These birds feed mainly by diving or dabbling. They eat aquatic plants with some molluscs, aquatic insects and small fish. They often feed at night, and will upend (dabble) for food as well as the more characteristic diving.[4]

The species is threatened by the degradation and destruction of its favoured habitats by anthropogenic causes which are very wide and varied including impoundment, drainage, pollution and mismanagement. The introduction of non-native species has also caused habitat degradation, e.g. the stocking of lakes with and accidental introduction of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella has caused reductions in plant and animal biomass available for the ducks to feed on. In addition, the increased threat of drought due to climate change may pose a threat to the species in the drier parts of its range. Increased disturbance by fishing boats and anglers among marginal vegetation could cause abandonment of the breeding sites or disrupt the timing of breeding particularly in populated areas, e.g. Western Europe. Ferruginous ducks are also threatened by hunting and large numbers are shot on passage in the autumn and in the wintering areas. Although protected in most European countries illegal and accidental hunting persists. It is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.[5] Among recent local initiatives it should be mentioned inclusion of the breeding habitats of the species in Armenia into network of Emerald Sites protected by the Bern Convention.[6]


BirdLife International (2019). "Aythya nyroca". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T22680373A152620862. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T22680373A152620862.en. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 64, 277. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Madge, Steve; Burn, Hilary (1988). Wildfowl An identification guide to the ducks, geese and swans of the world. Christopher Helm. pp. 252–253. ISBN 0-7470-2201-1.
Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. (1998). The Birds of the Western Palearctic Concise Edition Volume 1 Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press. pp. 242–244. ISBN 0-19-850187-0.
"Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca". Birdlife International. Retrieved 15 October 2016.

Ferruginous Pochard (Aythya nyroca) in Armenia. Archived 11 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine In online publication: "The State of Breeding Birds of Armenia". TSE NGO, Armenian Bird Census Council. Retrieved 27 May 2017

Further reading
Showler, D.A.; Davidson, P. (1999). "Observations of Jerdon's Babbler Chrysomma altirostre and Rufous-vented Prinia Prinia burnesii in Punjab and North-West Frontier Provinces, Pakistan" (PDF). Forktail. 15: 66–76.
Singh, A.P. (2002). "New and significant records from Dehra Dun valley, lower Garhwal Himalayas, India" (PDF). Forktail. 18: 151–153. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
Vinicombe, K.E. (2000). "Identification of Ferruginous Duck and its status in Britain and Ireland" (PDF). British Birds. 93 (1): 4–21.
Vinicombe, K.E. (2007). "ID in depth – Ferruginous Duck". Birdwatch. 176: 24–26.

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