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Mareca penelope

Mareca penelope (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Pangalloanserae
Cladus: Galloanseres
Ordo: Anseriformes

Familia: Anatidae
Genus: Mareca
Species: Mareca penelope

Mareca penelope (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas penelope (protonym)


Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio Decima, Reformata. Tomus I. Holmiæ (Stockholm): impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. 824 pp. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.542 BHL p. 126 BHL Reference page.

Vernacular names
аԥсшәа: Атрышәас
العربية: صواي
azərbaycanca: Fitçi-marek
башҡортса: Ҡашҡалаҡ
беларуская (тарашкевіца): Сьвістун
беларуская: Свіязь
български: Фиш
বাংলা: ইউরেশীয় সিঁথিহাঁস
brezhoneg: Houad penn ruz
català: Ànec xiulador
čeština: Hvízdák eurasijský
Cymraeg: Chwiwell
dansk: Pibeand
Deutsch: Pfeifente
Ελληνικά: Σφυριχτάρι (Ευρωπαϊκό)
English: Eurasian Wigeon
Esperanto: Fajfanaso
español: Silbón europeo
eesti: Viupart
euskara: Ahate txistulari
فارسی: گیلار
suomi: Haapana
føroyskt: Ennigul ont
Nordfriisk: Smen
français: Canard siffleur
Frysk: Smjunt
galego: Asubiador
עברית: ברווז צהוב-מצח
hrvatski: Patka zviždara
magyar: Fütyülő réce
հայերեն: Պենելոպա
Bahasa Indonesia: Itik bungalan
íslenska: Rauðhöfðaönd
italiano: Fischione europeo
日本語: ヒドリガモ
қазақша: Сарыайдар үйрек
한국어: 홍머리오리
коми: Вӧзь
lietuvių: Cyplė
latviešu: Baltvēderis
македонски: Патка свиркач
മലയാളം: ചന്ദനക്കുറി എരണ്ട
монгол: Зээрд нугас
Bahasa Melayu: Itik Wigeon
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဘဲအ
Plattdüütsch: Smunt
नेपाली: सिन्दुरे हाँस
Nederlands: Smient
norsk nynorsk: Brunnakke
norsk: Brunnakke
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଚନ୍ଦନା ହଂସ
polski: Świstun zwyczajny
پنجابی: یوریشاء وجن
português: Piadeira
română: Rață fluierătoare
русский: Свиязь
саха тыла: Тыйаах
Scots: Whistlin deuk
davvisámegiella: Snárttal
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Patka zviždara
slovenčina: Kačica hvizdárka
српски / srpski: Звиждара (Zviždara)
svenska: Bläsand
Türkçe: Fiyu
українська: Свищ
vèneto: Fio
Tiếng Việt: Vịt đầu vàng
中文: 赤颈鸭

The Eurasian wigeon or European wigeon, also known as the widgeon or the wigeon (Mareca penelope) is one of three species of wigeon in the dabbling duck genus Mareca. It is common and widespread within its Palearctic range.


The Eurasian wigeon was described by Carl Linnaeus in his landmark 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae under the binomial name Anas penelope.[2][3] Anas is the Latin word for "duck", and penelope refers to a duck that was supposed to have rescued Penelope when she was thrown into the sea. Her name derives from Ancient Greek πήνη pene, "braid" and ὤψ ops "appearance", from the ruse she used to deter suitors while her husband Ulysses was absent.[4]

This dabbling duck is 42–52 cm (17–20 in) long with a 71–80 cm (28–31 in) wingspan, and a weight of 500–1,073 g (1.102–2.366 lb).[5][6] The breeding male has grey flanks and back, with a black rear end, a dark green speculum and a brilliant white patch on upper wings, obvious in flight or at rest. It has a pink breast, white belly, and a chestnut head with a creamy crown.[7] In non-breeding (eclipse) plumage, the drake looks more like the female. The female is light brown, with plumage much like a female American wigeon. It can be distinguished from most other ducks, apart from American wigeon, on shape. However, that species has a paler head and white axillaries on its underwing. The female can be a rufous morph with a redder head, and a gray morph with a more gray head.[7]
Egg, Collection Museum Wiesbaden

It breeds in the northernmost areas of Europe and the Palearctic.[8] It is the Old World counterpart of North America's American wigeon. It is strongly migratory and winters further south than its breeding range. It migrates to southern Asia and Africa.[8] In Great Britain and Ireland, the Eurasian wigeon is common as a winter visitor, but scarce as a breeding bird in Scotland, the Lake District, the Pennines and occasionally further south, with only a handful of breeding pairs in Ireland. It can be found as an uncommon winter visitor in the United States on the mid-Atlantic and Pacific coasts. It is a rare visitor to the rest of the United States except for the Four Corners and the southern Appalachians.[5][7]
Behaviour and habitat
Two males and a female in flight

The Eurasian wigeon is a bird of open wetlands, such as wet grassland or marshes with some taller vegetation, and usually feeds by dabbling for plant food or grazing, which it does very readily. It nests on the ground, near water and under cover. It is highly gregarious outside of the breeding season and will form large flocks. They will join with flocks of the American wigeon in the United States, and they also hybridize with them.[5] This is a noisy species. The male has a clear whistle that sounds like: "pjiew pjiew", whereas the female has a low growl: "rawr".

The Eurasian wigeon is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies. Its conservation status is least concern.[1]

BirdLife International (2017). "Mareca penelope". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22680157A111892532. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T22680157A111892532.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
Linnaeus 1758
Mayr, E.; Cottrell, G.W., eds. (1979). Check-list of Birds of the World, Volume (1 2nd ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 462.
Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 46, 296. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Floyd 2008
Dunning 1992
Dunn & Alderfer 2006

Clements 2007


Clements, James (2007). The Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Dunn, J.; Alderfer, J. (2006). National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America (5th ed.).
Dunning, John B. Jr., ed. (1992). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5.
Floyd, T. (2008). Smithsonian Field Guide to the Birds of North America. NY: Harper Collins.
Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiae [Stockholm]: (Laurentii Salvii). p. 126. "A. cauda acutiufcula subtus nigra, carite brunneo, fronte alba."(in Latin)

Cox, Cameron; Barry, Jessie. "Aging of American and Eurasian Wigeons in female-type plumages" (PDF). Birding. 37 (2): 156–164. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-19. Retrieved 2011-10-09.

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