Harrison, T. 2005: The zoogeographic and phylogenetic relationships of early catarrhine primates in Asia. Anthropological science, 113: 43-51. PDF
Catarrhini is one of the two subdivisions of the higher primates (the other being the New World monkeys). It contains the Old World monkeys and the apes, which in turn are further divided into the lesser apes or gibbons and the great apes, consisting of the orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans. They are all native to Africa and Asia.
The name Catarrhini means drooping nose or downward nosed, and refers to their narrow, downward pointing nostrils, in contrast with the outward pointing nostrils of the New World monkeys (Platyrrhini).
Like the platyrrhines (with the exception of the genus Aotus), the catarrhines are diurnal.
Apes do not have tails. The tails of Old World Monkeys are not prehensile, but serve as balancing organs. Catarrhines have flat finger- and toenails. They have prehensile (grasping) hands, and all but humans also have prehensile feet. Their dental formula is Upper: 220.127.116.11, lower: 18.104.22.168.
Most species show considerable sexual dimorphism and do not form a pair bond. Most, but not all, species live in social groups.
Classification and evolution
The apes and Old World monkeys split from their New World monkey kin about 35 million years ago. The major catarrhine division occurred about 25 mya, with the gibbons separating from the great apes (including humans) about 15-19 mya.
* ORDER PRIMATES
In May 2005, three new primate fossils were discovered in the Bugti Hills of Pakistan. These hills lock away many primate mysteries. One of these mysteries was uncovered in 2001, when the early primate Bugtilemur was discovered and led to the assumption that lemurs came from Asia, not Africa. The three primates called Bugtipithecus inexpectans, Phileosimias kamali, and Phileosimias brahuiorum all date back to the Oligocene some 30 million years ago - when monkeys dominated only Africa. These were small lemur-like catarrhines that prospered in an ancient tropical rainforest. Possibly these Asian catarrhines led nowhere in evolution, a side branch from Eosimias. Other possible new catarrhines fossils have been uncovered in China, Thailand, and Burma. 
1. ^ a b Baines, Elizabeth (1997). "Apes and Humans". The University of Edinburgh. http://www.nhc.ed.ac.uk/index.php?page=493.504.508.505. Retrieved 2010-08-21.
* Sellers, Bill (2000-10-20). "Primate Evolution" (PDF). http://homepage.mac.com/wis/Personal/lectures/human-origins/PrimateEvolution.pdf. Retrieved 2010-08-21.
* Disotell, T. R.; Noviello, C. M.; Raaum, R. L.; Sterner, K. N.; Stewart, C. (2005). "Catarrhine primate divergence dates estimated from complete mitochondrial genomes: concordance with fossil and nuclear DNA evidence". J. Hum. Evol. (48): 237-257.
Source: Wikipedia, Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License