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Bothrops venezuelensis by Danny Siwek

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Serpentes
Infraordo: Caenophidia
Superfamilia: Viperoidea

Familia: Viperidae
Subfamilia: Crotalinae
Genus: Bothrops
Species: Bothrops venezuelensis

Bothrops venezuelensis Sandner Montilla, 1952
Vernacular names
English: Venezuelan lancehead
português: Jararaca-venezuelana

Bothrops venezuelensis, or the Venezuelan lancehead, is a species of venomous snake in the family Viperidae.[1] It is endemic to South America.[2]


There is not much known about the dangerousness of the venom to humans, but potentially lethal envenoming is possible. The venom of B. venezuelensis contains procoagulants,[3] possibly also myotoxins and cytotoxic substances.[4] This species is associated with a high snakebite-related morbidity and mortality in Venezuela, there's a report of a patient bitten by a juvenile, he had local swelling, severe pain, endothelial damage, excessive fibrinolysis, and incoagulable blood within 1.5 hours after the bite. He also had AKI with macroscopic hematuria, fluid overload resulted in pulmonary edema, requiring intermittent ventilation and diuretic treatment with furosemide.[5]
Geographic range

It is found in Colombia and northern Venezuela.

The type locality is " 'Boca de Tigre', Serranía de El Avila, Distrito Federal, Venezuela ".[6]

McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
"Bothrops". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 3 November 2006.
DocCheck Flexikon: Bothrops venezuelensis (German)
WCH Clinical Toxinology Resources: Bothrops venezuelensis
Fuchs, Joan; Faber, Katrin; Tuchscherer, Daniel T.; Tsakiris, Dimitrios A.; Weiler, Stefan; Hofer, Katharina E. (June 2020). "Bite by a juvenile Bothrops venezuelensis (Venezuelan lancehead) resulting in severe envenomation: A case report". Toxicon. 180: 39–42. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.04.002. ISSN 1879-3150. PMID 32289355.

The Reptile Database.

Further reading

Sandner-Montilla, Fernando. 1952. Serpientes Bothrops de Venezuela. Monografias Cientificas del Instituto de Terapeutica Experimental de los Laboratorios "Veros" LTDA. 9 (21): 5 pp. (unnumbered).


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