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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Cladus: Archelosauria
Division: Pan-Testudines
Division: Testudinata
Ordo: Testudines
Subordo: Cryptodira

Superfamilia: Chelydroidea
Familia: Kinosternidae
Subfamilia: Kinosterninae
Genus: Kinosternon
Species (19): K. acutum – K. alamosae – K. angustipons – †K. arizonense – K. baurii – K. chimalhuaca – K. creaseri – K. dunni – K. durangoense – K. flavescens – K. herrerai – K. hirtipes – K. integrum – K. leucostomum – K. oaxacae – K. scorpioides – K. sonoriense – K. steindachneri – K. subrubrum – †K. pojoaque

Kinosternon Spix, 1824
Vernacular names
English: Mud Turtles
日本語: ドロガメ属

Kinosternon is a genus of small aquatic turtles from the Americas known commonly as mud turtles.

Geographic range

They are found in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and South America. The greatest species richness is in Mexico, and only three species (K. dunni, K. leucostomum, and K. scorpioides) are found in South America.

They are very similar to the musk turtles, but generally smaller in size, and their carapaces are not as highly domed.

All mud turtles are carnivorous, consuming various aquatic invertebrates, fish, and even carrion.

  • Tabasco mud turtle - K. acutum Gray, 1831[1]
  • Alamos mud turtle - K. alamosae Berry & Legler, 1980[1]
  • Central American mud turtle - K. angustipons Legler, 1965[1]
  • Striped mud turtle - K. baurii (Garman, 1891)[1]
  • Jalisco mud turtle - K. chimalhuaca Berry, Seidel, & Iverson, 1996[1]
  • Cora mud turtle - K. cora Loc-Barragán et al., 2020[2]
  • Creaser's mud turtle - K. creaseri Hartweg, 1934[1]
  • Dunn's mud turtle - K. dunni Schmidt, 1947[1]
  • Durango mud turtle - K. durangoense Iverson, 1979[1]
  • Yellow mud turtle - K. flavescens (Agassiz, 1857)[1]
  • Herrera's mud turtle - K. herrerai Stejneger, 1925[1]
  • Rough-footed mud turtle - K. hirtipes (Wagler, 1830)[1]
    • Valley of Mexico mud turtle - K. h. hirtipes (Wagler, 1830)[1]
    • Lake Chapala mud turtle - K. h. chapalaense Iverson, 1981[1]
    • San Juanico mud turtle - K. h. magdalense Iverson, 1981[1]
    • Viesca mud turtle - K. h. megacephalum Iverson, 1981 (extinct)[1]
    • Mexican plateau mud turtle - K. h. murrayi Glass and Hartweg, 1951[1]
    • Patzcuarco mud turtle - K. h. tarascense Iverson, 1981[1]
  • Mexican mud turtle - K. integrum (LeConte, 1954)[1]
  • White-lipped mud turtle - K. leucostomum A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1851[1]
    • Northern white-lipped mud turtle - K. l. leucostomum A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1851[1]
    • Southern white-lipped mud turtle - K. l. postinguinale (Cope, 1887)[1]
  • Oaxaca mud turtle - K. oaxacae Berry & Iverson, 1980[1]
  • Scorpion mud turtle - K. scorpioides (Linnaeus, 1766)[1]
    • Scorpion mud turtle (subspecies) - K. s. scorpioides (Linnaeus, 1766)[1]
    • Central Chiapas mud turtle - K. s. abaxillare (Baur, 1925)[1]
    • White-throated mud turtle - K. s. albogulare (A.H.A. Duméril and Bocourt, 1870)[1]
    • Red-cheeked mud turtle - K. s. cruentatum (A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1851)[1]
  • Sonora mud turtle - K. sonoriense (Le Conte, 1854)[1]
    • Sonora mud turtle (subspecies) - K. s. sonoriense (Le Conte, 1854)[1]
    • Sonoyta mud turtle - K. s. longifemorale (Iverson, 1981)[1]
  • Florida mud turtle - K. steindachneri (Siebenrock, 1906)[3]
  • Arizona mud turtle - K. stejnegeri Gilmore, 1923[1][4]
  • Eastern mud turtle - K. subrubrum (Bonnaterre, 1789)[1]
    • Eastern mud turtle (subspecies) - K. s. subrubrum (Bonnaterre, 1789)[1]
    • Mississippi mud turtle - K. s. hippocrepis (Bonnaterre, 1789)[1]
  • Vallarta mud turtle - K. vogti López-Luna et al., 2018[5]


†Kinosternon arizonense Gilmore, 1923 (known from Plio-Pleistocene fossil remains, formerly considered conspecific with K. stejnegeri)[1][4]

Tabasco mud turtle (Kinosternon acutum) 6 March 2018.

Arizona mud turtle (Kinosternon arizonense), 25 October 2018.

Creaser's mud turtle (Kinosternon creaseri), juvenile from Yucatán, México.

Mexican mud turtle (Kinosternon integrum), a sub-adult from the Municipality of Tula, Tamaulipas, Mexico (20 September 2003).

Oaxaca mud turtle (Kinosternon oaxacae) La Soledad, Oaxaca, Mexico.

Scorpion mud turtle (Kinosternon scorpioides), southern Tamaulipas, Mexico (23 September 2004).

Sonoran mud turtle (Kinosternon sonoriense), male.

Eastern mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum) plastron.


Rhodin 2010, p. 000.95-000.98
Loc-Barragán, Jesús A.; Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Woolrich-Piña, Guillermo A.; Grünwald, Christoph I.; Anaya, Myriam Venegas De; Rangel-Mendoza, Judith A.; López-Luna, Marco A. (27 November 2020). "A New Species of Mud Turtle of Genus Kinosternon (Testudines: Kinosternidae) from the Pacific Coastal Plain of Northwestern Mexico". Zootaxa. 4885 (4): 509–529. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4885.4.3.
Rhodin, Anders G.J.; Inverson, John B.; Roger, Bour; Fritz, Uwe; Georges, Arthur; Shaffer, H. Bradley; van Dijk, Peter Paul (August 3, 2017). "Turtles of the world, 2017 update: Annotated checklist and atlas of taxonomy, synonymy, distribution, and conservation status(8th Ed.)" (PDF). Chelonian Research Monographs. 7. ISBN 978-1-5323-5026-9. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
McCord, Robert D. (2016-02-17). "What is Kinosternon arizonense?". Historical Biology. 28 (1–2): 310–315. doi:10.1080/08912963.2015.1053879. ISSN 0891-2963.

López-Luna, Marco A.; Cupul-Magaña, Fabio G.; Escobedo-Galván, Armando H.; González-Hernández, Adriana J.; Centenero-Alcalá, Eric; Rangel-Mendoza, Judith A.; Ramírez-Ramírez, Mariana M.; Cazares-Hernández, and Erasmo. "A Distinctive New Species of Mud Turtle from Western México". Chelonian Conservation and Biology. 2018.


Rhodin, Anders G.J.; van Dijk, Peter Paul; Iverson, John B.; Shaffer, H. Bradley (2010-12-14). "Turtles of the world, 2010 update: Annotated checklist of taxonomy, synonymy, distribution and conservation status" (PDF). Chelonian Research Monographs. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-15.

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