Fine Art

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Superclassis/Classis: Actinopterygii
Classis/Subclassis: Actinopteri
Subclassis/Infraclassis: Neopterygii
Infraclassis: Teleostei
Megacohors: Osteoglossocephalai
Supercohors: Clupeocephala
Cohors: Euteleosteomorpha
Subcohors: Neoteleostei
Infracohors: Eurypterygia
Sectio: Ctenosquamata
Subsectio: Acanthomorphata
Divisio/Superordo: Acanthopterygii
Subdivisio: Percomorphaceae
Series: Eupercaria
Ordo: Spariformes

Familia: Sparidae
Genera: Acanthopagrus - AmamiichthysArchosargus - Argyrops - Argyrozona - Boops - Boopsoidea - Calamus - Cheimerius - Chrysoblephus - Crenidens - Cymatoceps - Dentex - Diplodus - Evynnis - Gymnocrotaphus - Lagodon - Lithognathus - Oblada - Pachymetopon - Pagellus - Pagrus - Parargyrops - Petrus - Polyamblyodon - †PshekharusPterogymnus - Rhabdosargus - Sarpa - Sparidentex - Polysteganus - Porcostoma - Pterogymnus - Sparodon - Sparus - Spondyliosoma - Stenotomus - Virididentex


Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2006. FishBase, version (02/2006). [1]

Vernacular names
беларуская: Марскія карасі
čeština: Mořanovití
Deutsch: Meerbrassen
español: Espáridos
eesti: Merikogerlased
suomi: Hammasahven
français: Sparidés
magyar: Tengeri durbincsfélék
italiano: Sparidi, Pesce bianco
日本語: タイ科
Nederlands: Zeebrasems
ไทย: ปลาจาน, ปลาอีคุด

The Sparidae are a family of fish in the order Perciformes, commonly called sea breams and porgies. The sheepshead, scup, and red seabream are species in this family. Most sparids are deep-bodied compressed fish with a small mouth separated by a broad space from the eye, a single dorsal fin with strong spines and soft rays, a short anal fin, long pointed pectoral fins and rather large firmly attached scales.[1] They are found in shallow temperate and tropical waters and are bottom-dwelling carnivores.

There are hermaphrodites in the Sparidae. Protogyny and protandry appear sporadically through this lineage of fish.[2] Simultaneous hermaphrodites and bi-directional hermaphrodites do not appear as much since Sparidae are found in shallower waters.[2] Species of fish that express a hermaphroditic condition usually "lack a genetic hardwire", therefore ecological factors play a role in sex determination.[3]

Most species possess grinding, molar-like teeth.[4] Some of the species, such as Polysteganus undulosus, have been subject to overfishing, or exploitation beyond sustainable recovery.[5]

Pagrus major, or madai, is an important food fish in Japan
Dentex fourmanoiri
Pagrus auratus

The family Sparidae contains about 155 species in 38 genera:

Acanthopagrus Peters, 1855
Amamiichthys Tanaka & Iwatsuki, 2015 [6]
Archosargus Gill, 1865
Argyrops Swainson, 1839
Argyrozona Smith, 1938
Boops Cuvier, 1814
Boopsoidea Castelnau, 1861
Calamus Swainson, 1839
Centracanthus Rafinesque, 1810
Cheimerius Smith, 1938
Chrysoblephus Swainson, 1839
Crenidens Valenciennes, 1830
Cymatoceps Smith, 1938
Dentex Cuvier, 1814
Diplodus Rafinesque, 1810
Evynnis Jordan & Thompson, 1912
Gymnocrotaphus Günther, 1859
Lagodon Holbrook, 1855
Lithognathus Swainson, 1839
Oblada Cuvier, 1829
Pachymetopon Günther, 1859
Pagellus Valenciennes, 1830
Pagrus Cuvier, 1816
Parargyrops Tanaka, 1916
Petrus Smith, 1938
Polyamblyodon Norman, 1935
Polysteganus Klunzinger, 1870
Porcostoma Smith, 1938
Pterogymnus Smith, 1938
Rhabdosargus Fowler, 1933
Sarpa Bonaparte, 1831
Sparidentex Munro, 1948
Sparodon Smith, 1938
Sparus Linnaeus, 1758
Spicara Rafinesque, 1810
Spondyliosoma Cantor, 1849
Stenotomus Gill, 1865
Virididentex Poll, 1971


The most celebrated of the breams in cookery are the gilt-head bream and the common dentex.[7]
See also

Porgie fishing


Bray, D. J. & Gomon, M. F. (2012): Breams, SPARIDAE, in Fishes of Australia
de Mitcheson, Yvonne Sadovy; Liu, Min (Fall 2008). "Functional hermaphroditism in teleosts". Fish and Fisheries. 9: 1–43. doi:10.1111/j.1467-2979.2007.00266.x.
Mank, Judith E.; Promislow, Daniel E. L.; Avise, John C. (Winter 2005). "Evolution of alternative sex-determining mechanisms in teleost fish". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 87: 83–93. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2006.00558.x.
Johnson, G. D. & Gill, A. C. (1998). Paxton, J. R. & Eschmeyer, W. N. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 184. ISBN 0-12-547665-5. Eating the head is known to cause hallucinations, lasting many days.
Hogan, C. M. (2010): Overfishing. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment.
Tanaka, F.; Iwatsuki, Y. (2015). "Amamiichthys, a new genus for the sparid fish Cheimerius matsubarai Akazaki 1962, and redescription of the species, with designation of a neotype". Zootaxa. 4007 (2): 195–206. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4007.2.3.
Davidson, A. Mediterranean Seafood, Penguin, 1972. ISBN 0-14-046174-4, pp. 86–108.

Fish Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from ""
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World