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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Superclassis/Classis: Actinopterygii
Classis/Subclassis: Actinopteri
Subclassis/Infraclassis: Neopterygii
Infraclassis: Teleostei
Megacohors: Osteoglossocephalai
Supercohors: Clupeocephala
Cohors: Euteleosteomorpha
Subcohors: Neoteleostei
Infracohors: Eurypterygia
Sectio: Ctenosquamata
Subsectio: Acanthomorphata
Divisio/Superordo: Acanthopterygii
Subdivisio: Percomorphaceae
Series: Ovalentaria
Superordo: Blenniimorphae
Ordo: Blenniiformes
Subordo: Blennioidei

Familia: Tripterygiidae



Acanthanectes – Apopterygion – Axoclinus – BellapiscisBlennodon – Ceratobregma – Cremnochorites – Crocodilichthys – Cryptichthys – Enneanectes – Enneapterygius – ForsterygionGilloblennius – Helcogramma – Helcogrammoides – Karalepis – Lepidoblennius – Lepidonectes – Matanui – Norfolkia – NotoclinopsRuanohoSpringerichthys – Trianectes – Trinorfolkia – Tripterygion – Ucla


Brachynectes – Notoclinus


Tripterygiidae Whitley, 1931


Fricke, R. 1994: Tripterygiid fishes of Australia, New Zealand and the southwest Pacific Ocean (Teleostei). Theses zoologicae, 24: i-ix, 1-585.
Holleman, W.; Bogorodsky, S.V. 2012: A review of the blennioid fish family Tripterygiidae (Perciformes) in the Red Sea, with description of Enneapterygius qirmiz, and reinstatement of Enneapterygius altipinnis Clark, 1980. Zootaxa, 3152: 36–60. Preview
Miller, E.C., Lin, H.-C. & Hastings, P.A. 2015. Improved Resolution and a Novel Phylogeny for the Neotropical Triplefin Blennies (Teleostei: Tripterygiidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Available online 21 December 2015.DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2015.12.003 Reference page.
Roberts, C.D.; Paulin, C.D.; Stewart, A.L.; McPhee, R.P.; McDowall, R.M. (compilers) 2009: Checklist of New Zealand Chordata: living lancelets, jawless fishes, cartilaginous fishes, and bony fishes. Pp. 527-536 in Gordon, D.P. (ed.) New Zealand inventory of biodiversity. Volume 1. Kingdom Animalia. Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, New Zealand. ISBN 978-1-877257-72-8
Wainwright, P.C., Smith, W.L., Price, S.A., Tang, K.L., Ferry, L.A., Sparks, J.S. & Near, T.J. 2012. The evolution of pharyngognathy: a phylogenetic and functional appraisal of the pharyngeal jaw key innovation in labroid fishes and beyond. Systematic biology 61(6): 1001–1027. (PDF) DOI: 10.1093/sysbio/sys060 Reference page.
Whitley, G. P. 1931. New names for Australian fishes. Australian Zoologist 6(4): 310–334, Pls. 25–27. BHL Reference page.


Tripterygiidae and its species in FishBase,
Froese, R. & Pauly, D. (eds.) 2022. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication,, version 08/2021.
Genera of Tripterygiidae (including synonyms) in Catalog of Fishes, Eschmeyer, W.N., Fricke, R. & van der Laan, R. (eds.) 2022. Catalog of Fishes electronic version.

Vernacular names
English: triplefins, threefin blennies
italiano: Peperoncino
日本語: ヘビギンポ科
Nederlands: Drievinslijmvissen

Threefin or triplefin blennies are blenniiforms, small percomorph marine fish of the family Tripterygiidae. Found in tropical and temperate waters of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, the family contains about 150 species in 30 genera. The family name derives from the Greek tripteros meaning "with three wings".

With an elongated, typical blenny form, threefin blennies differ from their relatives by having a dorsal fin separated into three parts (hence the name); the first two are spinous. The small, slender pelvic fins are located underneath the throat and possess a single spine; the large anal fin may have one or two spines. The pectoral fins are greatly enlarged, and the tail fin is rounded. The New Zealand topknot, Notoclinus fenestratus, is the largest species at 20 cm in total length; most other species do not exceed 6 cm.

Many threefin blennies are brightly coloured, often for reasons of camouflage; these species are popular in the aquarium hobby. As demersal fish, threefin blennies spend most of their time on or near the bottom on coral and rocks. The fish are typically found in shallow, clear waters with sun exposure, such as lagoons and seaward reefs; nervous fish, they retreat to rock crevices at any perceived threat.

Threefin blennies are diurnal and territorial; many species exhibit sexual dichromatism, with the females drab compared to the males. The second dorsal fin is also extended in the males of some species. Small invertebrates comprise the bulk of the threefin blenny diet.

FishBase lists about 150 species in 30 genera:

Subfamily Notoclininae Fricke, 2009
Brachynectes Scott, 1957
Notoclinus Gill, 1893
Subfamily Tripterygiinae Whitley, 1931
Acanthanectes Holleman & Buxton, 1993
Apopterygion Kuiter, 1986
Axoclinus Fowler, 1944
Bellapiscis Hardy, 1987
Blennodon Hardy, 1987
Ceratobregma Holleman, 1987

Yellow-and-black triplefin
Forsterygion flavonigrum

Cremnochorites Holleman, 1982
Crocodilichthys Allen & Robertson, 1991
Cryptichthys Hardy, 1987
Enneanectes D.S. Jordan & Evermann, 1895
Enneapterygius Rüppell, 1835
Forsterygion Whitley & Phillipps, 1939
Gilloblennius Whitley & Phillipps, 1939
Helcogramma McCulloch & Waite, 1918
Helcogrammoides Rosenblatt, 1990
Karalepis Hardy, 1984
Lepidoblennius Steindachner, 1867
Lepidonectes Bussing, 1991
Matanui Jawad & Clements, 2004
Norfolkia Fowler, 1953
Notoclinops Whitley, 1930

Blue-eyed triplefin
Notoclinops segmentatus

Ruanoho Hardy, 1986
Springerichthys Shen, 1994
Trianectes McCulloch & Waite, 1918
Trinorfolkia Fricke, 1994
Tripterygion Risso, 1827
Ucla Holleman, 1993


Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2006). "Tripterygiidae" in FishBase. June 2006 version.

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