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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordoo: Rosales

Familia: Rosaceae
Subfamilia: Amygdaloideae
Tribus: Maleae
Subtribus: Lindleyinae – Malinae

Genera: AlniariaAmelanchierAriaAroniaChaenomelesChamaemelesChamaemespilusCormusCotoneasterCrataegusCydoniaDichotomanthesDocyniaDunnariaEriolobusGriffithariaHedlundiaHesperomelesKageneckiaKarpatiosorbusLindleyaMacromelesMajovskyaMalacomelesMalusMicromelesNormeyeraOsteomelesPeraphyllumPhippsiomelesPhotiniaPourthiaeaPseudocydoniaPyracanthaPyrusRhaphiolepisScandosorbusSorbus – Stranvaesia – Thomsonaria – Torminalis – Wilsonaria
Nothogenera: × Amelasorbus – × Pyromeles – × Sorbaronia – × Sorbocotoneaster – × Sorbomeles – x Sorbopyrus
Artificial nothogenera and graft hybrids: × Cydolus – × Pyracomeles – × Pyraria – × Pyralus – × Rhaphiobotrya – + Pyrocydonia

Maleae Small, Man. S.E. Fl. 632 (1933).

Type genus: Malus Mill.


Pyrodae C.S.Campb., R.C.Evans, D.R.Morgan & T.A.Dickinson, Pl. Syst. Evol. 266(1–2): 39 (2007), nom. illeg., p.p.

Primary references

Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the Southeastern Flora . XXII+1554 pp. Published by the author, New York. BHL Reference page.

Additional references

Campbell, C.S., Evans, R.C., Morgan, D.R., Dickinson, T.A. & Arsenault, M.P. 2007. Phylogeny of subtribe Pyrinae (formerly the Maloideae, Rosaceae): Limited resolution of a complex evolutionary history. Plant Systematics and Evolution 266(1–2): 119–145. DOI: 10.1007/s00606-007-0545-y PDF Reference page.
Liu, B.B., Hong, D.Y., Zhou, S.L., Xu, C., Dong, W.P., Johnson, G. & Wen, J. 2019. Phylogenomic analyses of the Photinia complex support the recognition of a new genus Phippsiomeles and the resurrection of a redefined Stranvaesia in Maleae (Rosaceae). Journal of Systematics and Evolution 57(6): 678-694. DOI: 10.1111/jse.12542 Open access Reference page.
Liu, B.B., Liu, G.-N., Hong, D.Y. & Wen, J. 2020. Eriobotrya Belongs to Rhaphiolepis (Maleae, Rosaceae): Evidence From Chloroplast Genome and Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Data. Frontiers in Plant Science 10(1731): 1–14. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2019.01731 Open access Reference page.
Liu, B.B., Wang, Y.B., Hong, D.Y. & Wen, J. 2020. A synopsis of the expanded Rhaphiolepis (Maleae, Rosaceae). PhytoKeys 154: 19.-55. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.154.52790 Open access Reference page.
Rushforth, K.D. 2018. The Whitebeam problem, and a solution. Phytologia 100(4): 222–247. PDF Reference page.
Sennikov, A.N. & Kurtto, A. 2017. A phylogenetic checklist of Sorbus s.l. (Rosaceae) in Europe. Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 93: 1–78. PDF Reference page.
Sun, J., Shi, S., Li, J., Yu, J., Wang, L., Yang, X., Guo, L. & Zhou, S. 2018. Phylogeny of Maleae (Rosaceae) based on multiple chloroplast regions: implications to genera circumscription. BioMed Research International 2018. DOI: 10.1155/2018/7627191 Open access Reference page.


Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page.

Vernacular names
العربية: تفاحاوية
беларуская: Яблыневыя
English: Pome fruit
русский: Яблоневые

The Maleae (incorrectly Pyreae) are the apple tribe in the rose family, Rosaceae. The group includes a number of plants bearing commercially important fruits, such as apples and pears, while others are cultivated as ornamentals. Older taxonomies separated some of this group as tribe Crataegeae,[1][2] as the Cydonia group (a tentative placement),[2] or some genera were placed in family Quillajaceae.[2]

The tribe consists exclusively of shrubs and small trees. Most have pomes, a type of accessory fruit that does not occur in other Rosaceae. All except Vauquelinia (with 15 chromosomes) have a basal haploid chromosome count of 17, instead of 7, 8, or 9 as in the other Rosaceae.[3]

There are approximately 28 genera that contain about 1100 species worldwide, with most species occurring in the temperate Northern Hemisphere.


The name Maleae is required by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (article 19), for any group at the tribal level that includes the genus Malus, but not either of the genera Rosa or Amygdalus.[4]
Current classification
Core members of the group

A traditional circumscription of Maleae includes the following genera:[1][2][5][6]

Amelanchier - serviceberry, juneberry, saskatoon, sugarplum
Aria (see Sorbus)
Aronia - chokeberry
Chaenomeles - Japanese quince
Chamaemespilus (see Sorbus chamaemespilus)
Cormus (see Sorbus)
Cydonia - quince
Eriobotrya -loquat
Heteromeles - toyon
Malacomeles - false serviceberry
Malus - apple, crabapple
Peraphyllum - wild crab apple, squaw apple
Pseudocydonia - Chinese quince
Pyrus - pear
Rhaphiolepis - hawthorn
Sorbus - rowan, whitebeam, service tree
Torminalis (see Sorbus torminalis)

intergeneric hybrids:[7][8]

× Amelasorbus
× Sorbopyrus

and graft hybrids:
+Pyrocydonia (Pirocydonia)
Tribe Crataegeae

A recent taxonomic treatment includes the following genera in Maleae that were earlier separated as tribe Crataegeae (or as intertribe hybrids):[9]

Cotoneaster - cotoneaster
Crataegus - hawthorn
Mespilus - medlar
Pyracantha - firethorn

intergeneric (including intertribal) hybrids:[7]

× Crataemespilus
× Crataegosorbus
× Sorbocotoneaster

and the graft hybrid:


Former members of family Quillajaceae

The following genera were previously placed in tribe Quillajeae in Rosaceae, or in family Quillajaceae. Their fruit are dry capsules, not pomes.


The Cydonia group

The Cydonia group within the Maloid Rosaceae was a tentative grouping of pome-fruited genera with many ovules (rather than just two) per carpel.[2] The genera involved were:


It is not yet clear whether this group is monophyletic within the Maleae. Molecular data indicate a close relationship between Cydonia and Pseudocydonia.[6] Multiple ovules per carpel also occur in Kageneckia, a non-pome-bearing genus.[6] Chloroplast DNA analysis, but not nuclear DNA, shows a tight relationship between Cydonia and Dichotomanthes, a non-pome-bearing genus.[6]

G. K. Schulze-Menz 1964. Reihe Rosales. in A. Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Nutzpflanzen nebst einer Übersicht über die Florenreiche und Florengebiete der Erde, Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin
Kalkman, C. (2004). "Rosaceae". In K. Kubitzki (ed.). Flowering plants, dicotyledons : Celastrales, Oxalidales, Rosales, Cornales, Ericales. Vol. 6. Berlin: Springer. pp. 343–386.
Goldblatt, P. (1976). "Cytotaxonomic studies in the tribe Quillajeae (Rosaceae)". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 63 (1): 200–206. doi:10.2307/2395226. JSTOR 2395226.
McNeill, J.; Barrie, F.R.; Buck, W.R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K.; Prado, J.; Prud'homme Van Reine, W.F.; Smith, G.F.; Wiersema, J.H.; Turland, N.J. (2012), International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011, vol. Regnum Vegetabile 154, A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG, ISBN 978-3-87429-425-6 Article 19.
Sterling, C. (1965). "Comparative morphology of the carpel in the Rosaceae. V. Pomoideae: Amelanchier, Aronia, Malacomeles, Malus, Peraphyllum, Pyrus, Sorbus". American Journal of Botany. 52 (4): 418–426. doi:10.2307/2440337. JSTOR 2440337.
Campbell, C.S.; Evans, R.C.; Morgan, D.R.; Dickinson, T.A.; Arsenault, M.P. (2007). "Phylogeny of subtribe Pyrinae (formerly the Maloideae, Rosaceae): Limited resolution of a complex evolutionary history". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266 (1–2): 119–145. doi:10.1007/s00606-007-0545-y.
Stace, C. A. 1975. Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles. Academic Press, London.
Potter, D.; Eriksson, T.; Evans, R.C.; Oh, S.H.; Smedmark, J.E.E.; Morgan, D.R.; Kerr, M.; Robertson, K.R.; Arsenault, M.P.; Dickinson, T.A.; Campbell, C.S. (2007). Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266(1–2): 5–43. doi:10.1007/s00606-007-0539-9

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