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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Apiales

Familia: Apiaceae
Subfamilia: Saniculoideae
Tribus: Saniculeae
Genus: Sanicula
Species: S. arctopoides – S. arguta – S. astrantiifolia – S. azorica – S. bipinnata – S. bipinnatifida – S. caerulescens – S. canadensis – S. chinensis – S. crassicaulis – S. elata – S. elongata – S. epipactis – S. europaea – S. floridana – S. giraldii – S. graveolens – S. gregaria – S. hacquetioides – S. hoffmannii – S. kauaiensis – S. laciniata – S. lamelligera – S. libertaS. marilandica – S. maritima – S. odorata – S. orthacantha – S. oviformis – S. peckiana – S. pengshuiensis – S. petagnioides – S. purpurea – S. rubriflora – S. rugulosa – S. sandwicensis – S. saxatilis – S. serrata – S. smallii – S. tienmuensis – S. tracyi – S. trifoliata – S. tuberculata – S. tuberosa


Sanicula L., Sp. Pl. 1: 235 (1753).

Sanicula europaea L. Sp. Pl. 1: 235. (1753). LT designated by Hitchcock, Prop. Brit. Bot. 138 (1929).


Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 235. Reference page.
Calviño, C.I. & Downie, S.R. 2007. Circumscription and phylogeny of Apiaceae subfamily Saniculoideae based on chloroplast DNA sequences Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44(1): 175–191. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2007.01.002 PDF. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2018. Sanicula. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Aug. 29. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Sanicula. Published online. Accessed: Aug. 29 2018.
Magee, A.R., Calviño, C.I., Liu, M., Downie, S.R., Tilney, P.M. & Van Wyk, B.E. 2010. New tribal delimitations for the early-diverging lineages of Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae. Taxon 59(2): 567–580. DOI: 10.1002/tax.592021 JSTOR PDF Reference page. 2017. Sanicula. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 09 Sep 2017.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Sanicula in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Падлеснік
čeština: žindava
dansk: Sanikel-slægten
Deutsch: Sanikel
English: Sanicle
suomi: Haavayrtit
français: Sanicle
hornjoserbsce: Hojawa
日本語: ウマノミツバ属
ქართული: ქრისტესბეჭედა
қазақша: Орманоты
lietuvių: Girūnė
Nederlands: heelkruid
polski: Żankiel
русский: Подлесник
slovenčina: žindava
svenska: Sårläkor
中文: 变豆菜属

Sanicula is a genus of plants in family Apiaceae (or Umbelliferae), the same family to which the carrot and parsnip belong. This genus has about 40 species worldwide, with 22 in North America.[1] The common names usually include the terms sanicle or black snakeroot.


Sanicula comes from sanus, Latin for "healthy", reflecting the use of S. europaea in traditional remedies.[2]
List of species

Sanicula arctopoides, Footsteps of spring, bear's foot sanicle.
Sanicula arguta, Sharp-toothed sanicle.
Sanicula azorica, Azores sanicle.
Sanicula bipinnata, Poison sanicle.
Sanicula bipinnatifida, Purple sanicle.
Sanicula canadensis, Black sanicle.
Sanicula crassicaulis, Gambleweed, Pacific sanicle.
Sanicula europaea, Sanicle.
Sanicula graveolens, Sierra sanicle.
Sanicula hoffmannii, Hoffmann's black snakeroot.
Sanicula laciniata, Coast sanicle.
Sanicula marilandica, Maryland sanicle.
Sanicula maritima, Adobe sanicle.
Sanicula mariversa, Waianae Range black snakeroot.
Sanicula odorata, Yellow-flowered sanicle, fragrant snakeroot.
Sanicula peckiana, Peck's sanicle.
Sanicula purpurea, Purpleflower black snakeroot.
Sanicula sandwicensis, Hawaii black snakeroot.
Sanicula saxatilis, Rock sanicle.
Sanicula smallii, Small's blacksnakeroot.
Sanicula tracyi, Tracy's black snakeroot.
Sanicula trifoliata, Large-fruited sanicle.
Sanicula tuberosa, Turkey pea.


Focus on Rarities (from the monthly Yerba Buena Chapter Newsletter) [1] (No direct link: click "June 2005 Tuberous Sanicle (Sanicula tuberosa)" in the left-hand sidebar.) Author: Michael Wood. Retrieved 9/9/09.
America, Garden Club of (1933). "Garden Club of America". Bulletin: 10.

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