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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Paraneoptera
Superordo: Condylognatha
Ordo: Hemiptera
Subordo: Heteroptera
Infraordo: Cimicomorpha
Superfamilia: Reduvioidea

Familia: Reduviidae
Subfamiliae (25): Bactrodinae - Centrocnemidinae - Cetherinae - Diaspidiinae - Ectrichodiinae - Elasmodeminae - Emesinae - Hammacerinae - Harpactorinae - Holoptilinae - Peiratinae - Phonolibinae - Phymatinae - Physoderinae - Reduviinae - Rhabdocorinae - Rhaphidosominae - Saicinae - Salyavatinae - Sphaeridopinae - Stenopodainae - Tegeinae - Triatominae - Tribelocephalinae - Visayanocorinae

Check: Chryxinae
Overview of genera (974)


A

Abelamocoris – Acanthaspis – Acanthischium – Acanthorhinocoris – Achillas – Acholla – Acosmetocoris – Ademula – Adrania – Adricomius – Afgoia – Afrocastra – Afrodecius – Aga – Agdistocoris – Agreuocoris – Agriocleptes – Agrioclopius – Agriocoris – Agriolestes – Agriosphodrus – Agyrius – Alberprosenia – Alcmenoides – Alloeocranum – Alvilla – Amauroclopius – Ambastus – Ambilobea – Amblythyreus – Ambrinemesa – Amilcaria – Amphibolus – Amulius – Anacanthesancus – Anacanthiocnemis – Anacerilocus – Analanca – Anandromesa – Androclus – Antanambeus – Antiopula – Antiopuloides – Anyttus – Apechtia – Apechtiella – Aphonocoris – Apiomerus – Apocaucus – Aprepolestes – Apronius – Apteroreduvius – Aradelloides – Aradellus – Aradomorpha – Araneaster – Araphocoris – Arcesius – Archilestidium – Arcuatitibia – Arenaeocoris – Argolis – Arilus – Aristathlus – Armstrongocoris – Armstrongula – Arrilpecoris – Astinus – Atisne – Atopozelus – Atrachelus – Audernaculus – Audernacus – Aulacoclopius – Aulacogenia – Aulacosphodrus – Australcmena – Australocleptes – Austrarcesius – Austrokatanga – Austrovelinus – Authenta –
B

Bactrodes – Baebius – Bagauda – Bagaudella – Bagaudina – Bagriella – Bakerinia – Baliemocoris – Banarocoris – Bannania – Barce – Bardesanes – Bargylia – Barlireduvius – Bartacus – Bayerus – Beanana – Befotaka – Beharus – Bekilya – Belemnocoris – Belminus – Bequaertidea – Bergemesa – Bergeviniella – Bergrothellus – Berlandiana – Bettotanocoris – Bettyella – Bewanicoris – Biasticus – Bironiola – Blapton – Bobba – Bocatella – Bolbodera – Borgmeierina – Brachysandalus – Brachytonus – Brassivola – Breddinia – Bredo – Brisbanocoris – Brontostoma – Bubiacoris – Bukacoris – Buninotus – Butuanocoris –
C

Cachanocoris – Caecina – Calistocoris – Callanocoris – Calliclopius – Callilestes – Callistodema – Caloundranius – Calphurniella – Calphurnioides – Campsocnemis – Campsolomus – Camptibia – Campylorhyncha – Canthesancus – Caprocethera – Carayonia – Carcinochelis – Carcinocoris – Carcinomma – Cargasdama – Caridomma – Castolus – Catala – Catamiarus – Catasphactes – Caunus – Cavernicola – Censorinus – Centraspis – Centrocnemis – Centrocnemoides – Centrogastocoris – Centrogonus – Centropleurocoris – Ceoncophalus – Ceratopirates – Cerellius – Cerilocus – Cethera – Cetheromma – Chaetacantha – Chelocoris – Cheronea – Cheronella – Chinemesa – Chondrolophus – Chopardita – Choreutocoris – Chryxus – Cidoria – Cimbus – Cleontes – Cleptocoris – Cleptria – Cnizocoris – Coilopus – Colastocoris – Coliniella – Collartida – Collartiella – Colpochilocoris – Coniophyrta – Coranopsis – Coranus – Corcia – Corhinoris – Corupaia – Cosmolestes – Cricetopareis – Crociaeus – Croscius – Cryptophysoderes – Ctenotrachelus – Ctydinna – Cuernolestes – Cyclopocoris – Cydnocoris –
D

Dactylopodocoris – Daraxa – Dasycnemus – Davatchicoris – Debilia – Descarpentriesius – Diaditus – Diarthrotarsus – Diaspidius – Dicranurocoris – Dicrotelus – Dilophocoris – Dinocleptes – Diokterocoris – Dipetalogaster – Diplosiacanthia – Disponsopsis – Distantus – Distirogaster – Dithectocoris – Dithmarus – Ditulocoris – Diurocoris – Dohrnemesa – Doldina – Domnus – Dorrigocoris – Drescherocoris – Dulitocoris – Dumbia – Durevius – Durganda – Durgandana – Duriocoris – Dyakocoris – Dystecta –
E

Ecelenodalus – Echinocoris – Ectinoderus – Ectmetacanthus – Ectomocoris – Ectrichodia – Ectrichodiella – Ectrychotes – Ectrychotoides – Edocla – Edoclella – Edoclina – Eidmannia – Elaphocranus – Elemacoris – Elongicoris – Emesa – Emesaya – Emesella – Emesopsis – Empicoris – Empyrocoris – Endochiella – Endochopsis – Endochus – Enoplocephala – Epiclopocoris – Epidaucus – Epidaus – Epiroderoides – Eratyrus – Erbessus – Eriopreda – Eriopredoides – Euagoras – Euagoropsis – Eudima – Eugubinus – Eulyes – Eupheno – Eurocconota – Eurosomocoris – Eurylochus – Eurymnus – Euvonymus – Exaeretosoma – Extraneza –
F

Fitana – Fitchia – Flexitibia – Floresocoris – Foucartus – Fusius –
G

Gageus – Gallienius – Gallobelgicus – Ganesocoris – Gardena – Gardenoides – Gastrogyrus – Gattonocoris – Gerbelius – Ghilianella – Ghinallelia – Gibbosella – Glossopelta – Glymmatophora – Gminatellus – Gminatus – Gnathobleda – Gnistus – Gnomocoris – Goellneriana – Gomesius – Gonteosphodrus – Gorareduvius – Graptocleptes – Graptoclopius – Graptolestes – Griveaudicoris – Guionius – Guithera –
H

Hadrokerala – Haematochares – Haematoloecha – Haematorrhophus – Hagia – Hagiana – Hammatoscelis – Haplolestes – Haplonotocoris – Harpactor – Harpactorella – Harpagochares – Harpagocoris – Harrisocoris – Havinthus – Hediocoris – Helocephalocoris – Helonotus – Hendecacentrus – Heniartes – Henicocephaloides – Henricohahnia – Hermilloides – Hermillus – Heterocorideus – Heteropinus – Hexamerocerus – Heza – Hiranetis – Hoberlandtia – Hoberlandtiana – Hoffmannocoris – Holoptiloides – Holoptilus – Holotrichius – Homalocoris – Homalosphodrus – Homognetus – Hoplomargasus – Hoplopium – Horcinia – Horciniella – Hornylia – Hovacoris – Hulstaertiella – Hybomatocoris –
I

Idiocleptria – Igora – Inara – Iocoris – Iphithereuta – Irantha – Iranthoides – Ischnobaena – Ischnobaenella – Ischnoclopius – Ischnolestes – Ischnonyctes – Isdegardes – Isocondylus – Isyndus – Ixopus –
J

Jacobsonocoris – Jamesa – Jamesella – Jeanneliella – Jorgcoris – Junghuhnidia –
K

Kalabitocoris – Kalonotocoris – Kalshovenia – Kaniama – Karenocoris – Karlacoris – Kasaka – Katanga – Kayanocoris – Keiserocoris – Kekenboschia – Khafra – Khafrana – Kibatia – Kibonotocoris – Kiskeyana – Kobacoris – Kodormus – Kokodacoris – Komodocoris – Kopsteinia – Korinchocoris – Kormilevida – Kumaonocoris –
L

Labidocoris – Lamabokeus – Lamottellus – Lamotteus – Lamprogastocoris – Lamprosphodrus – Lanca – Laurenticoris – Leana – Leaylia – Leistarches – Lenaeus – Lentia – Lentireduvius – Leogorrus – Leptacanthaspis – Leptinoschidium – Leptodema – Leptogaster – Leptolestes – Leptomendis – Leptophysoderes – Lerton – Lestomerus – Lestonicoris – Lethierrya – Lhostella – Liaghinella – Libaviellus – Libavius – Libyomendis – Lindus – Lingnania – Linshcosteus – Lisarda – Lissocleptes – Loboplusius – Locoptiris – Lophocephala – Lophoscutus – Lopodytes – Luja – Luluacoris – Lutevula – Lydenburgia – Lyramna –
M

Macracanthopsis – Macrocephalus – Madecassosaica – Mafulemesa – Mafulucoris – Magneticoris – Makilingana – Malacopus – Malaiseana – Mametina – Mametocoris – Mangabea – Manicocoris – Mankuninga – Maraenaspis – Marbodus – Mardania – Margacoris – Margasus – Maroantsetrana – Mascaregnasa – Massartia – Mastigonomus – Mastocoris – Mastostethocoris – Matangocoris – Mayemesa – Mecistocoris – Megapocaucus – Mekeocoris – Melanolestes – Menbyolidis – Mendanocoris – Mendis – Mendola – Merifanocoris – Mesosepis – Metagreuocoris – Metapterus – Micrauchenus – Microcarenus – Microcleptocoris – Microlestria – Micropolytoxus – Microsanta – Microstemmatoides – Microstemmella – Microstemmidea – Microtomus – Microtriatoma – Microvarus – Microvescia – Millotina – Mimocleptria – Mimoelasmodema – Miomerocerus – Mirambulus – Mireella – Mireicoris – Mokoto – Monicacoris – Montina – Moramanga – Moto – Motoperius – Motucoris – Mucrolicter – Muizonia – Mutillocoris – Myiophanes – Myocoris – Myrmicella –
N

Nacorus – Nacurosana – Nagusta – Nagustoides – Nalata – Namapa – Nandariva – Nannocleptria – Nannolestes – Nannotegea – Nanokerala – Nanyukicoris – Napoleon – Narina – Narsetes – Narvesus – Nebriscoides – Nebriscus – Neervoortia – Neivacoris – Neoarcesius – Neobayerus – Neobiasticus – Neocentrocnemis – Neocentrogonus – Neocerilocus – Neocheronea – Neocydnocoris – Neohavinthus – Neokhafra – Neoklugia – Neolibavius – Neolocoptiris – Neonyllius – Neophysoderes – Neopirates – Neosantosia – Neosastrapada – Neoscadra – Neoscadroides – Neoschidium – Neosphedanolestes – Neostaccia – Neostachyogenys – Neothodelmus – Neotiarodes – Neotrichedocla – Neotropiconyttus – Neoveledella – Neovelinus – Neozirta – Nesidiolestes – Nesita – Nesocastolus – Nicrus – Nitornus – Nogullocoris – Nothocleptes – Notocyrtus – Noualhierana – Noualhierella – Nularda – Nyllius – Nyplus –
O

Occamus – Ocrioessa – Odontogonus – Oedemanota – Okondo – Oncerotrachelus – Oncocephalus – Onychomesa – Opisthacidius – Opistoplatys – Orbella – Orgetorixa – Orianocoris – Orthocnemis – Orthunga – Otiodactylus – Oxythyreus –
P

Pachysandalus – Padasastra – Paedocoris – Pahabengkakia – Pakesia – Palacus – Palawanocoris – Paloptus – Panagrocoris – Panamia – Paniaia – Panstrongylus – Panthous – Pantoleistes – Pantopsilus – Parabelminus – Parabotha – Paracaunus – Paracentrocnemis – Paracerilocus – Paracleptria – Paracydnocoris – Paraduriocoris – Paragerbelius – Paraghesquierea – Paragreuocoris – Paragylla – Paragylloides – Parahermillus – Paralcmena – Paralenaeus – Paralibavius – Paralisarda – Paraluteva – Paramanicocoris – Paramphibolus – Paranesita – Paranyllius – Parapanthous – Parapechtia – Parapeprius – Paraphysoderes – Parapirates – Paraplynus – Parapothea – Parareduvius – Parascadra – Parasclomina – Paratagalis – Paratriatoma – Paravadimon – Paravilius – Parawatsa – Parechinocoris – Paredocla – Parendochus – Parepiclopocoris – Pareulyes – Parharpagocoris – Parhelonotus – Parirantha – Parischnolestes – Pasira – Pasiropsis – Patago – Paulianocoris – Pedionotocoris – Peirates – Pelmatomesa – Pelurgocoris – Penthikocleptes – Peprius – Peregrinator – Perinetocoris – Perissopygocoris – Perissorhynchus – Pessoaia – Petalocheirus – Petasolentia – Peyrierocoris – Phalantus – Pharagocoris – Phasmatocoris – Phaurolestes – Pheletocoris – Phemius – Philodoxus – Phimophorus – Phonergates – Phonoctonus – Phonolibes – Phorastes – Phrynodermocoris – Phryxobotrys – Phyja – Phymata – Physoderes – Physoderoides – Piestolestes – Pirnonota – Pisilus – Planeocoris – Platerus – Platychiria – Platymeris – Platymicrus – Plectrophorocoris – Pleias – Ploeogaster – Ploiaria – Plynaspoides – Plynoides – Plynus – Pnirontis – Pnirsus – Pnohirmus – Podormus – Poecilobdallus – Poeciloclopius – Poecilopterocoris – Poecilosphodrus – Polauchenia – Polididus – Polycentrocoris – Polychitonocoris – Polymazus – Polytoxus – Ponerobia – Porcelloderes – Pothea – Pratigi – Preangerocoris – Pristhesancus – Pristicoris – Proguithera – Pronozelus – Protenthocoris – Protogardena – Psammolestes – Pselliopus – Pseudobaebius – Pseudobagauda – Pseudobargylia – Pseudobeanana – Pseudocethera – Pseudodaraxa – Pseudolestomerus – Pseudolopodes – Pseudolopodytes – Pseudometapterus – Pseudomuizonius – Pseudophonoctonus – Pseudopothea – Pseudoracelda – Pseudoreduvius – Pseudozelurus – Psophis – Psytalla – Pteromalestes – Ptilocerus – Ptilocnemus – Ptilocoris – Putoniola – Pygolampis – Pyrodocoris – Pyrrhosphodrus –
Q

Quasitagalis – Quercetanus – Quinssyana –
R

Racelda – Raipurocoris – Rapites – Rasahus – Recicolus – Reduvius – Rellimocoris – Renaudicoris – Repipta – Rhachicephala – Rhamphophora – Rhapactor – Rhaphidosoma – Rhiginia – Rhinocoroides – Rhodnius – Rhynocoris – Rhyparoclopius – Rhysostethus – Ricolla – Rihirbus – Rocconota – Rochonia – Rodepirea – Rodhainiella – Rorocoris – Rudebeckocoris – Rulandus – Rutuba –
S

Sabronocoris – Saica – Saicella – Salyavata – Santosia – Sastrapada – Sava – Saxitius – Scadra – Scadrana – Scheitzia – Schidium – Schmitzicoris – Schmitziella – Schottus – Schoutedenana – Schoutedenocoris – Schultheissidia – Sciaphilocoris – Scipinia – Sclomina – Scoloponotus – Sepimesos – Serendiba – Serendibana – Serendus – Seridentus – Siamocoris – Sindala – Sinea – Sirthenea – Smiliopus – Sosius – Spairapeltis – Sphaeridops – Sphalerocoroides – Sphedanocoris – Sphedanolestes – Sphedanovarus – Sphinctocoris – Sphodrolestes – Sphodronyttus – Spilodermus – Staccia – Stachyogenys – Stachyomerus – Stachyotropha – Stalemesa – Staliastes – Stehlikia – Stenolemimus – Stenolemoides – Stenolemopsis – Stenolemus – Stenopoda – Stenopodessa – Stenorhamphus – Stenosastrapada – Stesiochorus – Stigmonotocoris – Stirogaster – Streptophorocoris – Strinatiella – Stuberiana – Syberna – Sycanus – Synavecoris –
T

Tagalis – Taitaia – Tamaonia – Tapeinus – Tapirocoris – Tasmanocoris – Tegea – Tegellula – Testusius – Tetroxia – Thelocoris – Themonocoris – Thereutocoris – Thodelmus – Thymbreus – Thysanopus – Thysanuchus – Tiarodes – Tiarodurganda – Timotheus – Tinna – Tinnatunga – Tinnunga – Tivanius – Tolyxopus – Tomolus – Toxocamptellus – Toxopeusiana – Toxopus – Tracasafra – Trachylestes – Tragelaphodes – Travassocoris – Triatoma – Tribelocephala – Tribelocephaloides – Tribelocodia – Trichedocla – Triclepola – Tridemula – Tritavus – Tsawa – Tubuataita – Tunes – Tydides – Tympanistocoris –
U

Ukambocoris – Ulpius – Undiareduvius – Usingerana – Utilitaria –
V

Vachiria – Vadimon – Vadonocoris – Valentia – Varelia – Varus – Vatinius – Veledella – Velinus – Velitra – Velitroides – Vesbius – Vescia – Veseris – Vestula – Vesulus – Vibertiola – Vilius – Villanovanus – Villiersella – Villiersiana – Vitumnus – Voconia – Volesus – Voloina –
W

Wardamanocoris – Watsa – Wygodzinskyella –
X

Xarada – Xenorhyncocoris – Xylinocoris – Xystonyttus –
Y

Yolinus –
Z

Zamolxis – Zavattariocoris – Zeluroides – Zelurus – Zelus – Zeraikia – Zirta – Zombocoris – Zostus – Zylobus
Name

Reduviidae Latreille, 1807

References

Latreille, P.A. 1807. Genera crustaceorum et insectorum secundem ordinem naturalem in familias disposita, iconibus exemplisque plurimus explicata. Tomus tertius. Parisiis et Argentorati: A. Koenig, 258 pp. BHL Reference page.

selected references

Castro-Huertas, V. & Forero, D.. 2017. Small range distributions in the high Andes: two new species of Liaghinella (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae) from Colombia. Zootaxa 4277(3): 399–412. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4277.3.5. Reference page.
Chłond, D., Guilbert, É., Faille, A., Baňař, P. & Davranoglou, L-R. 2018. A remarkable new species of cavernicolous Collartidini from Madagascar (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae). Zootaxa 4425(2): 372–384. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4425.2.11 Paywall Reference page.
Ghate, H.V. & Mathew, M. 2018. First record of the genus Gomesius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae) from India, with description of a new species. Zootaxa 4461(3): 421–428. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4461.3.7 pdf Open access Reference page.
Gil-Santana, H.R. & Ferreira, R.L. 2016. A new species of Dohrnemesa from Brazil, with notes on the male of D. carvalhoi and on D. albuquerquei (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae). Zootaxa 4173(6): 583–595. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4173.6.6. Reference page.
Gil-Santana, H.R., de Oliveira, J. & Zampaulo, R. de A. 2020. Quasitagalis afonsoi, a new genus and a new species of Saicinae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) inhabiting a cave in Brazil, with an updated key to the genera of Saicinae of the New World. ZooKeys, 966: 9–39. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.966.52930 Open access Reference page.
Huang, W.S.; Weirauch, C. 2012: Evolutionary history of assassin bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): insights from divergence dating and ancestral state reconstruction. PLoS ONE, 7(9): e45523. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045523
Ishikawa, T. & Naka, T. 2016. First record of the thread-legged assassin bug genus Proguithera from Japan, with description of a new species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae). Zootaxa 4184(1): 184–192. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4184.1.12. Reference page.
Maldonado Capriles, J. 1990: Systematic catalogue of the Reduviidae of the World. Caribb. J. Sci. (spec. edition) [not seen]
Malipatil, M.B. 2018. First record of the genus Ptilocerus in the Australian Region, with the description of two new species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae). Zootaxa 4410(1): 177–189. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4410.1.10 Reference page.
Swanson, D.R. 2017. Five new replacement names in Reduviidae (Heteroptera). Zootaxa 4341(2): 291–295. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4341.2.12. Reference page.
Swanson, D.R. 2018. Status of the name Argolis in Insecta. Zootaxa 4471(1): 179–181. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4471.1.9 Paywall Reference page.
Weirauch, C. 2008: Cladistic analysis of Reduviidae (Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha) based on morphological characters. Systematic entomology, 33(2): 229–274. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2007.00417.x
Weirauch, C.; Munro, J.B. 2009: Molecular phylogeny of the assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal genes. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 53(1): 287–299. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2009.05.039

Additional references

Ferreira, M.I.G., Ferreira, R.L. & Gil-Santana, H.R. 2016. The genus Zelurus Hahn, 1826, in Brazilian caves: description of new species and comments on the potential distribution of the genus in South America. Zootaxa 4170(2): 250–270. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4170.2.2. Reference page.
Gil-Santana, H.R. 2016. New synonymies among species of Nitornus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae). Zootaxa 4189(2): 275–290. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4189.2.4. Reference page.
Gil-Santana, H.R. & Webb, M.D. 2016. Transfer of the assassin bug Nitornus fuliginosus to the genus Apronius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Stenopodainae). Zootaxa 4117(1): 141–145. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4117.1.9. Reference page.
Gil-Santana, H.R. & Webb, M.D. 2019. Transfer of the assassin bug Helonotus pallidulus Walker to the genus Heza Amyot & Serville (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Harpactorini). Zookeys, 872: 91–99. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.872.35137 Reference page.
Guilbert, E.; Chłond, D. 2009: The Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of Ipassa Reserve (Makokou, Gabon). Zootaxa, 2157: 34–42. Abstract & excerpt
Ishikawa, T., 2005: The thread-legged assassin bug genus Gardena (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) from Japan. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, 148 (2): 209–224. Full article: [1].
Ishikawa, T. & Naka, T. 2016. The assassin bug genera Nagustoides and Stenolemus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) newly recorded from Japan. Zootaxa 4161(4): 593–600. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4161.4.12. Reference page.
Kulkarni, S. & Ghate, H.V. 2016. A new cavernicolous assassin bug of the genus Bagauda Bergroth (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae) from the Western Ghats, India. Zootaxa 4127(2): 365–375. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4127.2.8. Full article (PDF) Reference page.
Martin-Park, A.; Coscaron, M. del C. 2011: Assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) of Uruguay: A synoptic catalogue as a contribution to the study of Austral biodiversity. Zootaxa, 3006: 50–62. Preview
Poggio MG, Bressa MJ and Papeschi AG (2007). Karyotype evolution in Reduviidae (Insecta: Heteroptera) with special reference to Stenopodainae and Harpactorinae. Comp. Cytogenet. 1: 159–168
Rédei, D. 2005. New and little-known thread-legged assassin bugs from Central and South Asia (Heteroptera, Reduviidae: Emesinae). Folia Entomologica Hungarica 66:23-33. full article (PDF). Reference page.
Rodrigues, J.M.S., Moreira, F.F.F., Cordeiro, I.D.R.S., Almeida, M.D. & Jurberg, J. 2015: List of the type-specimens of Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in the Triatomines Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Brazil. Zootaxa 3936(2): 181–206. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3936.2.2. Reference page.
Rodrigues, J.M.S., Moreira, F.F.F., Cordeiro, I.D.R.S., Almeida, M.D. & Jurberg, J. 2015: List of the type-specimens of Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in the Triatomines Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Brazil . Zootaxa, 3936(2): 181–206. Zootaxa 3957(5): 600–600. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3957.5.9. (Errata) full article (PDF) Reference page.
Thorpe, S.E. 2013. Emesopsis infenestra Tatarnic, Wall & Cassis, 2011 (Heteroptera: Reduviidae), genus and species new to New Zealand. Biodiversity Data Journal 1: e1004. DOI: 10.3897/BDJ.1.e1004 Reference page.
Wilke, T., Aldrichs, W.H. & Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P. 2019. A weighted taxonomic matrix key for species of the rotifer genus Synchaeta (Rotifera, Monogononta, Synchaetidae). Zookeys, 871: 1–40. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.871.36435 Reference page.

Vernacular names
English: Assassin bugs
suomi: Petoluteet
日本語: サシガメ科
中文: 獵蝽科

The Reduviidae are a large cosmopolitan family of the order Hemiptera (true bugs). Among the Hemiptera and together with the Nabidae almost all species are terrestrial ambush predators: most other predatory Hemiptera are aquatic. The main examples of nonpredatory Reduviidae are some blood-sucking ectoparasites in the subfamily Triatominae. Though spectacular exceptions are known, most members of the family are fairly easily recognizable; they have a relatively narrow neck, sturdy build, and a formidable curved proboscis (sometimes called a rostrum). Large specimens should be handled with caution, if at all, because they sometimes defend themselves with a very painful stab from the proboscis.

Taxonomy

The Reduviidae are members of the suborder Heteroptera of the order Hemiptera. The family members are almost all predatory, except for a few blood-sucking species, some of which are important as disease vectors. About 7000 species have been described, in more than 20 recognized subfamilies, making it one of the largest families in the Hemiptera.

The name Reduviidae is derived from the type genus, Reduvius. That name, in turn, comes from the Latin reduvia, meaning "hangnail" or "remnant". Possibly this name was inspired by the lateral flanges on the abdomen of many species.

Common genera include:

Lopodytes
Melanolestes
Platymeris
Pselliopus
Psytalla
Rasahus
Reduvius
Rhiginia
Sinea
Zelus

While members of most subfamilies have no common names other than assassin bugs, among the many subfamilies are a few with their own common names that are reasonably widely recognized, such as:

Ambush bugs - subfamily Phymatinae
Thread-legged bugs - subfamily Emesinae, including the genus Emesaya
Kissing bugs (or cone-headed bugs) - subfamily Triatominae, unusual in that most species are blood-suckers and several are important disease vectors
Wheel bugs - genus Arilus, including the common North American species Arilus cristatus[1][2][3]
Grass assassin bugs - genus Lopodytes

Morphology

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A Zelus nymph from the Southeastern United States

Adult insects range from roughly 12 to 36 mm, depending on the species.[4] They most commonly have an elongated head with a distinct narrowed 'neck', long legs, and prominent, segmented, tubular mouthparts, most commonly called the proboscis, but some authors use the term "rostrum". Most species are bright in colour with hues of brown, black, red, or orange.
Nymph, found in Nepal

The most distinctive feature of the family is that the tip of the proboscis fits into a ridged groove in the prosternum, where it can be used to produce sound by stridulation. Sound is made by rasping the proboscis against ridges in this groove stridulitrum (stridulatory organ). These sounds are often used to discourage predators. When harassed, many species can deliver a painful stab with the proboscis, injecting venom or digestive juices. The effects can be intensely painful and the injection from some species may be medically significant.
Feeding
Orange assassin bug (Gminatus australis) feeding on a beetle
A reduviid camouflaged with debris, Australia
Rhynocoris – predatory flower assassin bug from South Africa, may bite when carelessly handled, painful aftereffects often persist for months[5]

Predatory Reduviidae use the long rostrum to inject a lethal saliva that liquefies the insides of the prey, which are then sucked out. The saliva contains enzymes that digest the tissues they swallow. This process is generally referred to as extraoral digestion.[6] The saliva is commonly effective at killing prey substantially larger than the bug itself.

The legs of some Reduviidae have areas covered in tiny hairs that aid in holding onto their prey while they feed. Others, members of the subfamily Phymatinae in particular, have forelegs that resemble those of the praying mantis, and they catch and hold their prey in a similar way to mantises.

As nymphs, some species cover and camouflage themselves effectively with debris or the remains of dead prey insects. The nymphal instars of the species Acanthaspis pedestris present one good example of this behaviour where they occur in Tamil Nadu in India. Another well-known species is Reduvius personatus, known as the masked hunter because of its habit of camouflaging itself with dust. Some species tend to feed on pests such as cockroaches or bedbugs and are accordingly popular in regions where people regard their hunting as beneficial. Reduvius personatus is an example, and some people breed them as pets and for pest control. Some assassin bug subfamilies are adapted to hunting certain types of prey; for example, the Ectrichodiinae eat millipedes, and feather-legged bugs eat ants. A spectacular example of the latter is Ptilocnemus lemur, an Australian species in which the adult attacks and eats ants, but the nymph waits until the ant bites the feathery tufts on its hind legs, upon which it whips around and pierces the ant's head with its proboscis, and proceeds to feed.[7]

Some research on the nature of the venom from certain Reduviidae is under way. The saliva of Rhynocoris marginatus showed some insecticidal activity in vitro, in tests on lepidopteran pests. The effects included reduction of food consumption, assimilation, and use. Its antiaggregation factors also affected the aggregation and mobility of haemocytes.[8]

The saliva of the species Rhynocoris marginatus (Fab.) and Catamirus brevipennis (Servile) have been studied because of their activity against human pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria (including strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella typhimurium) and the Gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes).

Some species are bloodsuckers rather than predators, and they are accordingly far less welcome to humans. Triatoma species and other members of the subfamily Triatominae, such as Rhodnius species, Panstrongylus megistus, and Paratriatoma hirsuta, are known as kissing bugs, because they tend to bite sleeping humans in the soft tissue around the lips and eyes. A more serious problem than their bites is the fact that several of these haematophagous Central and South American species transmit the potentially fatal trypanosomal Chagas disease, sometimes called American trypanosomiasis. This results in the death of 12,000 people a year.[9]
Phylogeny and evolutionary history
Arilus cristatus egg mass

Current taxonomy is based on morphological characteristics. The first cladistic analysis based on molecular data (mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal DNA) was published in 2009 and called into question the monophyly of some current groups, such as the Emesinae.[10] Reduviidae are monophyletic, and the "Phymatine Complex" is consistently recovered as the sister to the higher Reduviidae, which includes 90 percent of the reduviid species diversity.[11] The origin of the species dates to around the middle Jurassic.[12] The oldest fossils of the family are from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) aged Burmese amber, represented by nymphs[13] and the genus Paleotriatoma, belonging to the subfamily Triatominae.[14]
Example species

Arilus cristatus

References

Aldrich, Jeffrey R.; Chauhan, Kamlesh R.; Zhang, Aijun; Zarbin, Paulo H.G. (2013). "Exocrine Secretions of Wheel Bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Arilus spp.): Clarification and Chemistry". Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C. 68 (11–12): 522–526. doi:10.1515/znc-2013-11-1211. PMID 24601090. S2CID 30698712. Retrieved 2022-02-01.
Laiton J., Laura A.; Giraldo-Jaramillo, Marisol; Forero, Dimitri; Benavides M., Pablo (2021). "The wheel bug Arilus gallus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae): life history and description of immature stages". Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 123 (3): 551–563. doi:10.4289/0013-8797.123.3.551. S2CID 240074895.
Fitzsimmons, Jay M.; Fitzsimmons, Lauren P. (2010). "Pre-copulatory behavior of the wheel bug Arilus gallus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)". Entomological News. 121 (3): 304–307. doi:10.3157/021.121.0314. S2CID 86624882. Retrieved 2022-02-01.
Stevens, Lori; Dorn, Patricia L.; Schmidt, Justin O.; Klotz, John H.; Lucero, David; Klotz, Stephen A. (1 January 2011). "Chapter 8 - Kissing Bugs. The Vectors of Chagas". Advances in Parasitology. 75: 169–192. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-385863-4.00008-3. ISBN 9780123858634. PMID 21820556.
Weaving, Alan; Picker, Mike; Griffiths, Charles Llewellyn (2003). Field Guide to Insects of South Africa. New Holland Publishers, Ltd. ISBN 1-86872-713-0.
Sahayaraj, Kitherin; Kanna, Ayyachamy Vinoth; Kumar, Subramanian Muthu (2010). "Gross Morphology of Feeding Canal, Salivary Apparatus and Digestive Enzymes of Salivary Gland of Catamirus brevipennis (Servile) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)". Journal of the Entomological Research Society. 12 (2): 37–50. Retrieved 14 December 2012. open access
Bulbert, Matthew W; Herberstein, Marie Elisabeth; Gerasimos, Cassis (Mar 2014). "Assassin bug requires dangerous ant prey to bite first". Current Biology. 24 (6): R220–R221. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.02.006. PMID 24650903. closed access
Kitherin, Sahayaraj; Muthukumar, S. (2011). "Zootoxic effects of reduviid Rhynocoris marginatus (Fab.) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) venomous saliva on Spodoptera litura (Fab.)". Toxicon. 58 (5): 415–425. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2011.06.001. PMID 21787800. closed access
"PAHO | Chagas disease".
Weirauch, Christiane; Munro, James B. (October 2009). "Molecular phylogeny of the assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal genes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Elsevier. 53 (1): 287–299. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.05.039. PMID 19531379. closed access
Crandall, Keith A; Hwang, Wei Song; Weirauch, Christiane (September 28, 2012). "Evolutionary History of Assassin Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): Insights from Divergence Dating and Ancestral State Reconstruction". PLOS ONE. 7 (9): e45523. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...745523H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045523. PMC 3460966. PMID 23029072.
Hwang, & Weirauch, C. (2012). Evolutionary history of assassin bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): insights from divergence dating and ancestral state reconstruction. PLOS ONE, 7(9), e45523–e45523. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045523
Wang, Bo; Xia, Fangyuan; Engel, Michael S.; Perrichot, Vincent; Shi, Gongle; Zhang, Haichun; Chen, Jun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.; Wappler, Torsten; Rust, Jes (June 2016). "Debris-carrying camouflage among diverse lineages of Cretaceous insects". Science Advances. 2 (6): e1501918. Bibcode:2016SciA....2E1918W. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1501918. ISSN 2375-2548. PMC 4928993. PMID 27386568.
Poinar, George (January 2019). "A primitive triatomine bug, Paleotriatoma metaxytaxa gen. et sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), in mid-Cretaceous amber from northern Myanmar". Cretaceous Research. 93: 90–97. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2018.09.004. S2CID 134969065.

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