Insects, Fine Art Prints

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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Coleopterida
Ordo: Coleoptera
Subordo: Polyphaga
Infraordo: Scarabaeiformia
Superfamilia: Scarabaeoidea

Familia: Scarabaeidae
Subfamiliae: AclopinaeAegialiinaeAllidiostomatinaeAphodiinaeAulonocneminaeCetoniinae – Chironinae – Dynamopodinae – Dynastinae – Eremazinae – MelolonthinaeOrphninae – Phaenomeridinae – RutelinaeScarabaeinaeTermitotroginae – †Cretoscarabaeinae – †Electrorubesopsinae – †Lithoscarabaeinae

Overview of genera (2355)
A

Ablabera – Ablaberoides – Acanthaphodius – Acanthobodilus – Acanthonitis – Acanthovalgus – Aceratus – Acheilo – Achelyna – Achloa – Achranoxia – Aclopus – Acrobolbia – Acrossidius – Acrossoides – Acrossus – Acrothyrea – Actinobolus – Acylochilus – Adebrattia – Adeloparius – Adoretops – Adoretus – Adoryphorus – Adossa – Aegialia – Aegopsis – Aegostheta – Aemilius – Aethiaratrogus – Aethiessa – Afroataenius – Afrodiapterna – Afrodiastictus – Afrodrepanus – Afrolepis – Agamopus – Aganocrossus – Agaocephala – Agaocnemis – Agestrata – Aglaphyra – Agnorimus – Agoliinus – Agolius – Agrilinellus – Agrilinus – Ahermodontus – Aidophus – Airapus – Alaia – Aliaclitopa – Alissonotum – Aliuscanthoniola – Allara – Alleucosma – Allidiostoma – Alloblackburneus – Allobodilus – Allogymnopleurus – Allokotarsa – Allomyrina – Allonitis – Allophileurinus – Allophyllus – Allorrhina – Alloscelus – Allothnonius – Alocoderus – Alogistotarsa – Alvarinus – Amadotrogus – Amaladera – Amaurina – Amazula – Amblochilus – Amblonoxia – Amblyodus – Amblyoproctus – Amblyterus – Amerilochus – Amerisaprus – Amidorus – Amietina – Amiserica – Amithao – Ammoecioides – Ammoecius – Amorphochelus – Amphiceratodon – Amphimallon – Amphistomus – Amphitrichia – Ampliodactylus – Ampotis – Anacamptorrhina – Anacanthodes – Anachalcos – Anaetius – Anagnathocera – Anahi – Analleucosma – Anamatochoranus – Anartioschiza – Anatista – Anatona – Anatonochilus – Ancistrosoma – Ancognatha – Ancylonyx – Anelaphinis – Anenaria – Aneucomides – Anisocanthon – Anisochelus – Anisonyx – Anisopholis – Anisoplia – Anisorrhina – Ankaratrotrox – Annegialia – Anochilia – Anocoela – Anoctus – Anomala – Anomalacra – Anomalochela – Anomalochilus – Anomalomorpha – Anomalophylla – Anomalorhina – Anomalurobius – Anomiopsoides – Anomiopus – Anomioserica – Anomius – Anomocaulus – Anomolyna – Anomonyx – Anonthobium – Anonychonitis – Anoplocheilus – Anoplodrepanus – Anoplognatho – Anoplognathus – Anoplosiagum – Anoplostethus – Anoronotum – Anoxia – Anoxoides – Antandroyanus – Anthoplia – Anthotocus – Anthracophora – Anthracophorides – Anthrencya – Antitrochalus – Antitrogus – Antodon – Aparammoecius – Apeltastes – Aphaenoserica – Aphanesia – Aphanesthes – Aphelinis – Aphengium – Aphengoecus – Aphodaulacus – Aphodiellus – Aphodiopsis – Aphodius – Aphodobius – Aphodoharmogaster – Aphodopsammobius – Aphonodelus – Aphonus – Aphotaenius – Apicencya – Aplopsis – Apocnosis – Apocnosoides – Apogonia – Aporecolpa – Aposchiza – Apotolamprus – Apotriodonta – Apsteiniella – Aptenocanthon – Apterepilissus – Apterodemidea – Aptychonitis – Arachnodes – Archedinus – Archeohomaloplia – Archocamenta – Archophanes – Archophileurus – Archoserica – Arctodium – Areoda – Argeremazus – Argyripa – Arielina – Arriguttia – Arrowiellus – Arupaia – Asactopholis – Asaphomorpha – Aschnarhyparus – Asiactenius – Asophrops – Aspidolea – Aspilus – Astaena – Astaenoplia – Astenorella – Asthenopholis – Asthenorhina – Astibicola – Astoxenus – Astrocara – Ataeniopsis – Ataenius – Atanyproctus – Ateuchus – Athesphatoplia – Athlia – Atrichelaphinis – Atrichiana – Atropinota – Attavicinus – Atysilla – Augoderia – Augosoma – Aulacopalpus – Aulacopris – Aulacoschiza – Aulacoserica – Aulanota – Aulonocnemis – Australagolius – Australammoecius – Australaphodius – Australocus – Australoxenella – Autoerica – Automolius – Autoserica –
B

Bacchusia – Badelina – Badizoblax – Balanogonia – Balbera – Ballucus – Baloghonthobium – Balsameda – Barutus – Barybas – Basilewskyanus – Basilewskynia – Batesiana – Bdelyropsis – Bdelyrus – Beckhoplia – Beckius – Beriqua – Besourenga – Bietia – Bilga – Bilobatus – Biphyllocera – Biralus – Bisallardiana – Bisencya – Bivalgus – Bizanus – Blabephorus – Blackburneus – Blaesia – Blanchardoplia – Blebea – Blepharotoma – Blikana – Blitopertha – Bobiricola – Bodiloides – Bodilopsis – Bodilus – Bohepilissus – Bolax – Bolbites – Boletoscapter – Bombodes – Bonoraella – Bordatius – Bothrorrhina – Bothynus – Boucomontiellus – Brachagenius – Brachiaphodius – Brachylepis – Brachyllus – Brachymacroma – Brachymis – Brachypholis – Brachysiderus – Brachysternus – Bradypodidium – Brahmina – Brancoplia – Brenskiella – Bricoptis – Brindalus – Brittonius – Bruchaphodius – Bruneixenus – Bubas – Buettikeria – Bunbunius – Burmeisteriellus – Butozania – Byrasba – Byrrhidium – Byrrhomorpha – Byrsalepis –
C

Caccobius – Caeconthobium – Caelius – Caelorrhina – Caesariatoplia – Calamosternus – Calicnemis – Caligodorus – Callabonica – Calliferoplia – Callipechis – Callirhinus – Callistemonus – Callistethus – Calloodes – Callophylla – Calloserica – Callynomes – Calocolobopterus – Calodactylus – Calomacraspis – Calometopidius – Calometopus – Calypsoryctes – Camapterus – Cambefortantus – Cambefortius – Camenta – Camentoserica – Camerounophylla – Camerunopholis – Campsiura – Campulipes – Campulipus – Campylophyllus – Campylotrochalus – Candezeollus – Canestera – Canthidium – Canthochilum – Canthodimorpha – Canthon – Canthonella – Canthonidia – Canthonosoma – Canthotrypes – Canudema – Canuschiza – Carinaulus – Carneiola – Carneluttia – Carneodon – Carneoryctes – Cartwrightia – Cassolus – Castanochilus – Castelnauphylla – Catharsiocopris – Catharsius – Catrachia – Cavonus – Caymania – Celebesia – Celidota – Celidotella – Centrantyx – Centrochilus – Centrognathus – Cephalocyclus – Cephalodesmius – Cephaloncheres – Cephaloschiza – Ceramida – Ceraspis – Ceratogonia – Ceratolontha – Ceratophileurus – Ceratoryctoderus – Cerhomalus – Cesamexico – Cetonia – Chaetocosmetes – Chaetodermina – Chaetonyx – Chaetopisthes – Chaetopteroplia – Chaetovalgus – Chalcasthenes – Chalcochlamys – Chalcocopris – Chalcocrates – Chalcopharis – Chalcosoma – Chalcothea – Chalcotheomima – Chalepides – Charadronota – Chariochilus – Chariodactylus – Chariodema – Charioserica – Charitovalgus – Chasmatopterus – Chasme – Chaunocolus – Cheilo – Cheiragra – Cheirodontus – Cheirolasia – Cheironitis – Cheiroplatys – Cheirora – Cheirotonus – Cheleion – Chelilabia – Cherbezatina – Cheronia – Chewia – Chiliphileurus – Chilodiplus – Chiloloba – Chiloschiza – Chilothorax – Chilotrogus – Chioneosoma – Chiriquiba – Chiron – Chittius – Chloresthia – Chlorixanthe – Chlorobapta – Chlorocala – Chnaunanthus – Chondropyga – Chondrorrhina – Chromoptilia – Chromovalgus – Chrysina – Chrysoserica – Chtonobius – Cinacanthus – Circellium – Clania – Clastocnemis – Clavipalpus – Clemora – Cleptocaccobius – Clerota – Clilopocha – Clinteria – Clinterocera – Clinteroides – Clithria – Clitopa – Clomecyra – Clypeasta – Clypeodrepanus – Clypeolontha – Clypeoserica – Clyster – Cnemargulus – Cnematoplatys – Cnemida – Cnemidophileurus – Cnemisus – Cnemoschiza – Cocherellus – Cochinchidema – Cochliotis – Cochliotodes – Coega – Coelocorynus – Coelocratus – Coelogenia – Coelosis – Coelothorax – Coelotrachelus – Coenochilus – Coenonycha – Coenoryctoderus – Coilodera – Colacus – Collagenus – Colobopteridius – Colobopteroides – Colobopterus – Colobostoma – Colpochelyne – Colpochila – Colpochilodes – Colymbomorpha – Comaserica – Comatapogonia – Comencya – Commaladera – Comophorina – Comoramorphochelus – Compsocephalus – Compsodactylus – Comythovalgus – Conebius – Coniopholis – Conioserica – Conradtia – Copridaspidus – Coprimorphus – Copris – Coproecus – Coprophanaeus – Coptochiroides – Coptochirus – Coptodactyla – Coptognathus – Coptomia – Coptomiopsis – Coptorhina – Corminus – Coronoserica – Corynophyllus – Corynoserica – Corynotrichius – Corythoderus – Coscinocephalus – Cosmesthes – Cosmiomorpha – Cosmiomorphomima – Cosmiophaena – Cosmovalgus – Costelytra – Costinota – Cotalpa – Cotinis – Cotinorrhina – Craniorphnus – Craterocyphus – Cremastocheilus – Crepischiza – Criniflava – Cryptaphodius – Cryptocanthon – Cryptodontus – Cryptodus – Cryptoscatomaseter – Cryptotrogus – Ctenotis – Ctilocephala – Cubidens – Cunderdina – Cyclidiellus – Cyclidinus – Cyclidius – Cyclocephala – Cyclomera – Cylichnus – Cylindrocrates – Cymophorus – Cyobius – Cyphochilus – Cyphonistes – Cyphonocephalus – Cyphonotus – Cyphonoxia – Cyphoserica – Cyprolais – Cyptochirus – Cyriodera – Cyrtocamenta – Cyrtothyrea – Cyrtotrochalus –
D

Daintreeola – Dalgopus – Danielssonia – Dasygnathus – Dasylepida – Dasyus – Dasyvalgoides – Dasyvalgus – Debutina – Decellophylla – Dechambrophylla – Dedalopterus – Degallieridium – Dellacasiellus – Delopleurus – Delphinobius – Deltepilissus – Deltochilum – Deltorrhinum – Demarziella – Democrates – Dendropaemon – Denhezia – Dentatoplia – Denticnema – Dermolepida – Deroserica – Descarpentriesia – Desfontainesia – Desicasta – Deuterocaulobius – Diabroctis – Diaclaspus – Diacucephalus – Dialithus – Dialytellus – Dialytes – Dialytodius – Diaphonia – Diaphoroserica – Diaphylla – Diaplochelus – Diapterna – Diastictus – Dicellachilus – Dicentrines – Dichecephala – Dichelhoplia – Dichelomorpha – Dichelonyx – Dicheloschema – Dichelus – Dicheros – Dichodontus – Dichotomius – Dichrosoma – Dicrania – Dicranocara – Dicranocnemus – Dicronocephalus – Dicronorhina – Didactylia – Digenethle – Dihymenonyx – Dikellites – Dilatatoplia – Diloboderus – Dilochrosis – Dilophochila – Dilortomaeus – Dinacoma – Dinamoraza – Dinarobina – Dinoryctes – Diorygopyx – Dipelicus – Diphrontis – Diphucephala – Diphycerus – Diphyllomorpha – Diphyodactylus – Diploa – Diploeida – Diplognatha – Diplotaxis – Diplotropis – Dirrhina – Dischista – Discopeltis – Disphysema – Djadjoua – Djafouna – Doaphius – Doleroserica – Dolerotarsa – Dolichoplia – Dolichostethus – Dorbignyolus – Doryscelis – Dorysthetus – Doxocalia – Drepanocanthoides – Drepanocanthus – Drepanocerus – Drepanoplatynus – Dudleyellus – Dungoorus – Dwesasilvasedis – Dymusia – Dynastes – Dyscinetus – Dysphanochila –
E

Ebolowanius – Eccoptomia – Echrya – Echyra – Ectinohoplia – Ectinoplectron – Eideria – Elaphinis – Elaphocera – Elaphocerella – Elpidus – Emadiellus – Embrithoplia – Empecamenta – Empecta – Empectida – Empectoides – Emphania – Empycastes – Enamillus – Enaria – Enarotadius – Encya – Endebius – Endoxazus – Endroedianibe – Endroedyolus – Enema – Engertia – Engistanoxia – Engyopsina – Ennearabdus – Enoplotarsus – Enracius – Enthora – Entypophana – Entyposis – Eocorythoderus – Eodrepanus – Eophileurus – Eosaulostomus – Epactoides – Epectinaspis – Epholcis – Epicaulis – Epichrysus – Epilissus – Epipholis – Epirinus – Epironastes – Epistalagma – Epitrichius – Epixanthis – Ercomoana – Eremazus – Eremobothynus – Eremophygus – Eremoplia – Eremotrogus – Eriesthis – Erigavo – Eriopeltastes – Erioscelis – Eriphoserica – Eriulis – Erlangeria – Erytodes – Erytus – Esymus – Etiserica – Eubarybas – Eucamenta – Euchilia – Euchirus – Euchloropus – Euchroea – Eucopidocaulus – Eucranium – Eucyclophylla – Eudicella – Eudinopus – Eudolus – Euetheola – Euglypta – Euhemicyclium – Euheptaulacus – Euknemoplia – Eulaiades – Eulepida – Eulepidopsis – Eumacronota – Eunanus – Euoniticellus – Euorodalus – Euparia – Euparixia – Euparixoides – Euparotrix – Eupatorus – Eupegylis – Euphoresia – Euphoria – Eupleurus – Eupoecila – Euranoxia – Euremina – Europtron – Eurychelus – Euryomia – Eurypeza – Euryschiza – Eurysternus – Euryvalgus – Eusaproecius – Euselates – Euserica – Eutelesmus – Eutrichesis – Eutrichillum – Eutyctus – Evanos – Evbrittonia – Exaphodius – Excisivalgus – Exochogenys – Exolontha – Exomala – Exopholis – Exostethus – Exoxyomus –
F

Faargia – Fairmairiana – Fairmairoplia – Falsignambia – Falsotoclinius – Falsototoclinius – Feeridium – Ferrerianus – Firminus – Flaviellus – Flechtmanniella – Fornasinius – Fossocarus – Frankenbergerius – Frenchella – Fruhstorferia –
G

Gama – Gametis – Gametoides – Gamka – Gariep – Garreta – Gastrohoplus – Gastromaladera – Gastroserica – Geniates – Geniatosoma – Genieridium – Genuchinus – Genuchus – Geomyphilus – Geopsammodius – Geotrogus – Gibboryctes – Giesbertiolus – Gillaspytes – Gilletellus – Gilletianus – Glaphyronyx – Glaphyserica – Globencya – Globulischiza – Glossocheilifer – Glycosia – Glycyphana – Glycyserica – Glyphoderus – Glyptoglossa – Glyptothea – Glyptotheomima – Gnaphalopoda – Gnaphalostetha – Gnathocera – Gnathogolofa – Gnorimella – Gnorimidia – Gnorimimelus – Gnorimotrichius – Gnorimus – Goiginus – Goliathopsis – Goliathus – Golinca – Golofa – Gonaphodiellus – Gonaphodioides – Gonaphodiopsis – Gonaphodius – Gongrolophus – Goniaspidius – Goniophileurus – Goniorphnus – Goniorrhina – Gorditus – Gordonius – Gouna – Grammodoplia – Grammopyga – Grandinaphodius – Granulopsammodius – Griveaudella – Gromphas – Gronocarus – Gryphonycha – Guanyinaphodius – Guatemalica – Gymnetina – Gymnetis – Gymnogaster – Gymnoloma – Gymnophana – Gymnopleurus – Gymnopyge – Gymnoschiza – Gynaecoserica – Gyronotus – Gyroplia –
H

Hadrocerus – Hadrodiplognatha – Hadropechys – Hadrops – Hadrorhyparus – Hadrosticta – Halffterinetis – Hamatoplectris – Hammondantus – Hansreia – Haplidia – Haplophileurus – Haploscapanes – Haplosoma – Harmodactylus – Harmogaster – Haroldaphodius – Haroldiataenius – Haroldiellus – Haroldius – Harpechys – Harpina – Harposceles – Hatamus – Hecistopsilus – Hegemus – Helictopleurus – Heliocopris – Hellaserica – Hemiaspidius – Hemicamenta – Hemichaetoplia – Hemichalcothea – Hemichnoodes – Hemictenius – Hemicyclium – Hemicyrthus – Hemiheterorrhina – Hemilia – Hemipharis – Hemiphileurus – Hemiprotaetia – Hemiserica – Hemitheodosia – Hemycorythoderus – Heptaulacus – Heptelia – Heptophylla – Hercitis – Herculaisia – Heteralleucosma – Heterochelus – Heteroclita – Heteroclitopus – Heterocnemis – Heteroconus – Heterocotinis – Heterocranus – Heterogeniates – Heterogenius – Heteroglobus – Heteroglycyphana – Heterogomphus – Heteroligus – Heteronitis – Heteronychus – Heteronyx – Heterophana – Heteropseudinca – Heterorrhina – Heteroschiza – Heteroserica – Heterosoma – Heterostetha – Heterostriatus – Heterosyphus – Heterotephraea – Heterotrochalus – Heterovalgus – Hexataenius – Hexodon – Hiberasta – Hiekeianus – Hieritis – Hilarianus – Hilyotrogus – Himalhoplia – Hispanioryctes – Holisonycha – Holocanthon – Holocephalus – Holochelus – Holocnemus – Hologymnetis – Holomelia – Holopycnia – Holorhopaea – Holotrichia – Homalochilus – Homaloserica – Homalotarsus – Homocopris – Homoeomorphus – Homoeoschiza – Homoiosternus – Homoliogenys – Homolotropus – Homophileurus – Homopliopsis – Homothyrea – Hoplebaea – Hopleidos – Hoplia – Hopliopsis – Hoplitovalgus – Hoplochelus – Hoplocnemis – Hoplolontha – Hoplomaladera – Hoplopyga – Hoplopygothrix – Hoplorida – Hoploryctoderus – Hoplosternodes – Hoplosternus – Hornietus – Horridocalia – Hovachelus – Hovophileurus – Howdenia – Howdenocarus – Humblotania – Hybaloides – Hybalus – Hybocamenta – Hyboschema – Hyboserica – Hybovalgus – Hylamorpha – Hylobothynus – Hymenochelus – Hymenoplia – Hyperius – Hyphelithia – Hyphoryctes – Hypocanthidium – Hypochrus – Hypolepida – Hypopholis – Hyposerica – Hypothyce – Hypotrichia – Hypselogenia –
I

Iarupea – Ichnestoma – Ictigaster – Idaecamenta – Idaeserica – Idanastes – Idiapogonia – Idiochelyna – Idionycha – Idiovalgus – Idutywa – Ignambia – Iguazua – Inanda – Inca – Incala – Indieraligus – Indognorimus – Indotrichius – Ingogius – Ingrisma – Iranotrogus – Irazua – Iridisoma – Irrasinus – Ischiopsopha – Ischnoscelis – Ischnostomiella – Ischnotarsia – Ischnovalgus – Isocamenta – Isoceraspis – Isocopris – Isonychus – Issacaris – Ixodina – Ixorida –
J

Jalalabadia – Jalisco – Jansonella – Janssensantus – Janssensellus – Jothochilus – Joziratia – Jumnos –
K

Kabindeknomiosoma – Kadlecia – Kareiga – Kenyatopadema – Kerowagia – Khoina – Kibakoganea – Knysna – Kolbeellus – Komrina – Koreoxyomus – Korisaba – Koshantschikovius – Kraseophylla – Krikkenius – Kryzhanovskia – Kubousa – Kuenckeliana –
L

Labarrus – Labroma – Laceratoplia – Lachnodera – Lacroixidema – Lacroixilepis – Lamellothyrea – Lamproserica – Lansbergia – Laotrichia – Larhodius – Lasiopsis – Lasioserica – Lasiotrichius – Lasiotropus – Latipalpus – Latodrepanus – Laurentiana – Lawangia – Lebbea – Lecanoderus – Lecanotrogus – Lechorodius – Leiopsammodius – Lenosoma – Leonotus – Leotrichillum – Lepanus – Lepidiota – Lepidomela – Lepidoserica – Lepidotrogus – Lepischiza – Lepisia – Lepithrix – Lepitrichula – Lepivalgus – Leptochristina – Leptocnemis – Leptohoplia – Leptorhyparus – Leptrichula – Leribe – Lethosesthes – Leucocelis – Leucochilus – Leucopholis – Leucophorus – Leucothyreus – Leuretra – Liatongus – Liberocera – Lichnia – Lichniops – Lichniopsoides – Licnostrategus – Limarus – Limepomera – Lindbergianus – Liocamenta – Liogenys – Lioglyptoxenus – Liostraca – Liothorax – Liotrichius – Liparetrus – Lissogenius – Lissomelas – Lobidion – Lobogeniates – Loboserica – Lobovalgus – Lomanoxia – Lomanoxoides – Lomaptera – Lonchothyrea – Lonchotus – Longaphodius – Longicrura – Lophodonitis – Lophorrhina – Loraphodius – Loraspis – Lorditomaeus – Loricatarsa – Lorkovitschia – Lucassenia – Luispenaia – Lunaphodius – Lutfius – Luxolinus – Lycomedes – Lyraphora –
M

Machala – Macleayella – Macrocranius – Macrocyphonistes – Macrodactylus – Macroderes – Macromina – Macronotops – Macropanelus – Macroplia – Macropliopsis – Macroretroides – Macroretrus – Macrotina – Macrotrigonophorus – Maculaphodius – Madahoplia – Madecorphnus – Madiniella – Madotrogus – Maechidinus – Maechidius – Mahafalyanus – Makalaka – Makoanus – Maladera – Malagoniella – Malaisius – Malawinophylla – Mallotarsus – Maneschetocia – Manjarivolo – Manodactylus – Manonychus – Manopus – Manoserica – Marmarina – Marmylida – Marronus – Martineziana – Martinezidium – Mascarena – Mausoleopsis – Mawenzhena – Mayataia – Mazahuapertha – Mazoe – Mecaspidiellus – Mecaspidius – Mecynodes – Mecynorhina – Mecynorrhinella – Medeotrogus – Megaceras – Megaceropsis – Megacoryne – Megalleucosma – Megalonitis – Megalorrhina – Megaphonia – Megarhopaea – Megasoma – Megateloides – Megatelus – Megatharsis – Megathopa – Megathoposoma – Megistophylla – Megistoplia – Melanchroea – Melanhyphus – Melanocamenta – Melanocanthon – Melinesthes – Melinopterus – Mellissius – Melolontha – Melolonthoides – Mendidaphodius – Mendidius – Menigionyx – Mentophilus – Meridioclita – Merinanus – Meriserica – Merogyrus – Meroloba – Mesontoplatys – Mesoserica – Mesotrochalus – Messyrhus – Mesystoechus – Metacatharsius – Metaceraspis – Metadorodocia – Metallesthes – Metallopseudinca – Metanastes – Metapachylus – Metaphileurus – Metapogonia – Metascelis – Metatrogus – Meurguesia – Michaeloplia – Micraegialia – Micrelaphinis – Micreuchilia – Microchalcothea – Microchilus (Scarabaeidae) – Microdoris – Microlomaptera – Micropeltus – Microphileurus – Microplidus – Microplus – Micropoecila – Microrhopaea – Microryctes – Microserica – Microsericaria – Microtermitodius – Microteuchestes – Microthopus – Microtrochalus – Microvalgus – Mictophileurus – Miksicus – Milichus – Mimadoretus – Mimaegialia – Mimela – Mimeoma – Mimogeniates – Mimonthophagus – Mimovalgus – Minutoplia – Miolachnosterna – Miotemna – Mireia – Miribida – Mitracamenta – Mitracephala – Mitrophorus – Modialis – Molynoptera – Molynopteroides – Monochelus – Monoplistes – Monotropus – Monteitheolus – Moraguesia – Moriaphila – Morokia – Moseriana – Mothon – Mozartius – Mucrencya – Musurgus – Mycernus – Mycterophallus – Mycterophalus – Myloxena – Myloxenoides – Myodermides – Myodermidius – Myodermum – Myrhessus – Myrmecaphodius – Myrmecochilus – Mysarus – Mystroceros –
N

Namakwanus – Nanaga – Nanniscus – Nanorhopaea – Nanos – Nanotermitodius – Napoa – Narycius – Nayarita – Neagolius – Nebulasilvius – Nedymoserica – Nefoncerus – Nematophylla – Nematoserica – Neocalaphodius – Neocamenta – Neoclithria – Neoclitopa – Neocnecus – Neocolobopterus – Neocorvicoana – Neocorynophyllus – Neodasygnathus – Neodiapterna – Neoemadiellus – Neogutierrezia – Neoheptaulacus – Neoheteronyx – Neohyphus – Neomaladera – Neomystroceros – Neonastes – Neonitis – Neopentelia – Neophaedimus – Neophaenognatha – Neophyllotocus – Neopsammodius – Neorhyssemus – Neorrhina – Neoryctes – Neosaproecius – Neoscelis – Neoserica – Neosericania – Neosisyphus – Neotrichaphodioides – Neotrichiorhyssemus – Neotrichonotulus – Neovalgus – Nepaloserica – Nephrodopus – Nepytis – Neso – Nesohoplia – Nesosisyphus – Nesovinsonia – Nettelislasia – Neuroserica – Nialaphodius – Nialosternus – Nialus – Nimbacola – Nimbus – Niphetophora – Niphobleta – Nipponaphodius – Nipponoagoliinus – Nipponoserica – Nitiocellus – Nitorellus – Nobiellus – Nobius – Nolicus – Nosphisthis – Notocaulus – Novapus – Nunoidium – Nyassinus –
O

Obaphodius – Oberthuroplia – Ochicanthon – Octocollis – Octoplasia – Odochilus – Odontiellus – Odontolochus – Odontoloma – Odontolytes – Odontoplia – Odontopsammodius – Odontorrhina – Odontotonyx – Odontria – Oedanomerus – Oedichira – Oedipovalgus – Oficanthon – Oligophylla – Omaloplia – Omocnemus – Omocrates – Oncerus – Oncochirus – Oniticellus – Onitis – Onochaeta – Onoreidium – Ontherus – Onthobium – Onthophagus – Onychionyx – Onychoserica – Onychothecus – Oocamenta – Ophropyx – Oplostomus – Opsitocus – Oreoderus – Oreogenoplia – Oreotrogus – Oreovalgus – Orizabus – Orocanthus – Oroclita – Orodaliscoides – Orodaliscus – Oromus – Orphnus – Orsilochus – Orthocavonus – Orubesa – Oruscatus – Oryctes – Oryctoderinus – Oryctoderus – Oryctophileurus – Oscarinus – Osmanius – Osmoderma – Othnonius – Otoclinius – Otophorus – Outenikwanus – Outeniqua – Ovoserica – Oxyataenius – Oxychirus – Oxychirus – Oxycorythus – Oxyligyrus – Oxyomus – Oxypelta – Oxyserica – Oxysternon – Oxythyrea – Ozodius –
P

Pachnessa – Pachnoda – Pachnodoides – Pachrodema – Pachycamenta – Pachychilecamenta – Pachycnema – Pachycolus – Pachydema – Pachydemocera – Pachyderoserica – Pachygastra – Pachylomera – Pachylotoma – Pachyoryctes – Pachypoides – Pachyserica – Pachysoma – Pachytricha – Pacuvia – Palacephala – Palaeophileurus – Paleira – Paleopragma – Palnia – Panelus – Panglaphyra – Panotrogus – Pantodinus – Pantolia – Papuana – Parabodilus – Parabyrsopolis – Paracamenta – Paracanthon – Parachilia – Parachorius – Parachrysina – Paraclitopa – Paracoptochirus – Paracorythoderus – Paracotalpa – Paracrossidius – Paracryptocanthon – Paracyclidius – Paradeloparius – Paradidactylia – Paragnorimus – Paragymnopleurus – Paraheteronyx – Paralleucosma – Parallidiostoma – Paramaechidius – Paramicroplus – Parammoecius – Paramorphochelus – Paranelaphinis – Paranimbus – Paranodon – Parapetiia – Paraphacosomoides – Paraphileurus – Paraphytus – Parapilinurgus – Paraplectrone – Paraplesiataenius – Parapoecilophila – Paraprotaetia – Parapsammodius – Parapucaya – Pararhabdotis – Pararhopaea – Pararhynchocephala – Pararhyssemus – Paraschizognathus – Parasciton – Parastasia – Parastraella – Parataenius – Paratrichaphodius – Paratrichius – Paratriodonta – Paraxeloma – Pardalosus – Parelaphinis – Parepixanthis – Pareriesthis – Pareteronychus – Pareuchilia – Parisomorphus – Parmaladera – Paroniticellus – Paronitis – Paronthobium – Paronyx – Paroplia – Paroryctoderus – Parthenoserica – Parvuhowdenius – Pasaphylla – Passaliolla – Paulianellus – Peckolus – Pectinichelus – Pectinopus – Pectinosoma – Pedaria – Pedaridium – Pedinorrhina – Pegylis – Pelidnota – Peltonotus – Peltotrichius – Penalus – Pentacoryna – Pentaphylla – Pentecamenta – Pentelia – Penthima – Pentodina – Pentodon – Pentodontoschema – Peotoxus – Peperonota – Pereiraidium – Pericamenta – Periclitopa – Pericoptus – Periphanesthes – Periproctoides – Periproctus – Periserica – Perissosoma – Peritrichia – Perrindema – Petrovitzius – Phaeaphodius – Phaedimus – Phaedotrogus – Phaenognatha – Phaenomeris – Phalacronothus – Phalangogonia – Phalangonyx – Phalangosoma – Phalops – Phanaeus – Phaneresthes – Pharaphodius – Phiara – Philacelota – Phileucourtus – Phileurus – Philistina – Philoscaptus – Philoserica – Phobetus – Pholeoaphodius – Pholidochris – Phonopleurus – Phonotaenia – Phorine – Photyna – Phoxomela – Phoxomeloides – Phycochus – Phylliocephala – Phyllocamenta – Phyllococerus – Phyllognathus – Phyllopertha – Phyllophaga – Phyllopodium – Phylloserica – Phyllotocidium – Phyllotocus – Phyllotrochalus – Phytholaema – Pileotrichius – Pilinopyga – Pilinurgus – Pimelomera – Pimelopus – Pinacopodius – Pinacotarsus – Piscoperus – Pittinius – Placodidus – Plagiochilus – Plagiogonus – Planolinellus – Planolinoides – Planolinus – Planophileurus – Platychelus – Platycoelia – Platyderides – Platygenia – Platygeniops – Platynocephalus – Platyonitis – Platyphileurus – Platysodes – Platytomus – Plectris – Plectrodes – Plectrone – Pleistophylla – Pleophylla – Plesiopalacephala – Plesioserica – Plesiosternus – Pleuraphodius – Pleuronitis – Pleuronota – Pleurophorus – Plochilia – Plochiliana – Plotopuserica – Plusioserica – Podalgus – Podischnus – Podolasia – Podopholis – Podopogonus – Podostena – Podotenoides – Podotenus – Podovalgus – Poecilopharis – Pogoniotarsus – Pogonopus – Pogonotarsus – Pollaplonyx – Polyenaria – Polyphylla – Polyphyllum – Polyplastus – Polystalactica – Popillia – Porphyronota – Praelinotarsia – Prionoryctes – Priscorrhina – Pristerophora – Proagosternus – Problerhinus – Proborhinus – Prochelyna – Proctophanes – Prodontria – Propomacrus – Proseconius – Prosphileurus – Protaetia – Protaetiomorpha – Protelura – Proteroschiza – Protochilus – Protoclita – Protoclitopa – Protoctenius – Psammodaphodius – Psammodius – Psammorpha – Psednoserica – Pseudachloa – Pseudacrossus – Pseudagenius – Pseudagoliinus – Pseudagolius – Pseudalleucosma – Pseudataenius – Pseudenaria – Pseudencya – Pseudepixanthis – Pseuderytus – Pseudesymus – Pseudholophylla – Pseudignambia – Pseudinca – Pseudisonychus – Pseudoahermodontus – Pseudocamenta – Pseudocanthon – Pseudocavonus – Pseudochalcothea – Pseudochalcotheomima – Pseudochironitis – Pseudoclinteria – Pseudoclithria – Pseudocoelotrachelus – Pseudocongella – Pseudocopris – Pseudocotalpa – Pseudodiceros – Pseudodicrania – Pseudodiplotaxis – Pseudodrepanocanthus – Pseudogeniates – Pseudogonaphodiellus – Pseudoheptaulacus – Pseudohercitis – Pseudoheterochelus – Pseudoheteronyx – Pseudoheterophana – Pseudoholophylla – Pseudohomonyx – Pseudohoplia – Pseudoleuretra – Pseudoliogenys – Pseudomaladera – Pseudomicroplus – Pseudomothon – Pseudonthobium – Pseudooxythyrea – Pseudopachydema – Pseudopanotrogus – Pseudoparoplia – Pseudopedaria – Pseudopharaphodius – Pseudopholis – Pseudopilinurgus – Pseudopodotenus – Pseudorphnus – Pseudoryctes – Pseudosaproecius – Pseudosaprosites – Pseudoscaptobius – Pseudoschizognathus – Pseudoschizonycha – Pseudosericania – Pseudostereomera – Pseudosymmachia – Pseudosyrichthus – Pseudotephraea – Pseudoteuchestes – Pseudotocama – Pseudotorynorrhina – Pseudotrematodes – Pseudotrochalus – Pseudoxyomus – Pseuduroxys – Pseustophylla – Psilocnemis – Psilodontria – Psilonychus – Psilopholis – Pterobius – Pteronyx – Ptychodesthes – Ptyophis – Pubinus – Pucaya – Puelchesia – Pusiodactylus – Pycnopanelus – Pycnoschema – Pygora – Pygovalgus – Pyronota – Pyrrhopoda –
Q

Qingaphodius –
R

Rabula – Raceloma – Rakovicius – Ramilia – Ravautiana – Raysymmela – Rectoscutaria – Redotus – Renaudiana – Renaudius – Renorphnus – Repsimus – Rhabdopholis – Rhabdotis – Rhabdotops – Rhachistoplia – Rhadinolontha – Rhadinotaenia – Rhagopteryx – Rhamphorrhina – Rhinarion – Rhinaspis – Rhinaspoides – Rhinocerotopsis – Rhinocoeta – Rhizogeniates – Rhizoplatodes – Rhizoplatys – Rhizoproctus – Rhizotrogus – Rhodaphodius – Rhomborhina – Rhopaea – Rhynchapogonia – Rhynchocephala – Rhynchoserica – Rhyparus – Rhysothorax – Rhyssemodes – Rhyssemorphus – Rhyssemus – Rhyxicephalus – Rhyxiderma – Rhyxiphloea – Rimuloplia – Robinsonelliana – Rubilepis – Rugaphodius – Rugopertha – Rutela – Rutelisca – Ruteloryctes – Ruteraetia – Ruteroides –
S

Sabatinelloplia – Sahlbergianus – Saphobiamorpha – Saphobius – Saprolochus – Saprositellus – Saprosites – Saprovisca – Saprus – Sariangus – Sarophorus – Sarothromerus – Saulostomus – Sauvagesinella – Scabrostomus – Scapanes – Scapanoclypeus – Scaphorhina – Scaptobius – Scaptocnemis – Scarabaeus – Scatimus – Scatonomus – Scatrichus – Scelidothrix – Scelophysa – Schaefferellus – Scheinia – Schismatocera – Schistocometa – Schizochelus – Schizognathus – Schizonycha – Schizorhina – Schochidia – Schoenherria – Scitala – Scitaloides – Sciton – Scybalocanthon – Scybalophagus – Scythrodes – Scythropesthes – Sebakwe – Sebaris – Selmaladera – Selomothus – Selviria – Semanopterus – Semienaria – Serica – Sericania – Sericesthis – Sericoides – Sericospilus – Setiserica – Setodius – Setylaides – Siamaphodius – Siamophylla – Sicardia – Sigorus – Silluvia – Silvaphilus – Silvinha – Simogonius – Simorrhina – Sinaphodius – Sinapisoma – Sinochelus – Sinodiapterna – Sinodrepanus – Siralus – Sisyphus – Sitiphus – Skelleyanus – Smicorhina – Somalibia – Sophrops – Spaniolepis – Sparrmannia – Spathoschiza – Spelaiorrhina – Sphaeroscelis – Sphaerotrochalus – Sphecoserica – Sphinctovalgus – Sphodroxia – Sphyrocallus – Spilophorus – Spinohoplia – Spodistes – Spodochlamys – Stalagmosoma – Stebnickiella – Stegopterus – Stenochelyne – Stenocrates – Stenopegylis – Stenopisthes – Stenoserica – Stenosophrops – Stenosternus – Stenotarsia – Stenotothorax – Stephanopholis – Stephanorrhina – Stephanucha – Stereomera – Sternoplus – Stethaspis – Stethodesma – Stethopseudinca – Stigmatoplia – Stilbotrochalus – Stiptocnemis – Stiptopodius – Stiptotarsus – Storeyus – Straliga – Strategus – Streblopus – Strigoderma – Strigodius – Stripsipher – Subrinus – Sugrames – Sukelus – Sulcodrepanus – Sulcophanaeus – Suntemnonycha – Surutu – Sussorca – Sybacodes – Sybax – Sylvicanthon – Symmela – Symphodon – Synacta – Synapsis – Synchilus – Synclitopa – Synenaria – Syngeneschiza – Synistovalgus – Syrichthodontus – Syrichthomorphus – Syrichthoschema – Syrictes – Systellopus – Systellorrhina –
T

Taeniodera – Tafaia – Taiwanotrichia – Talautoclyster – Tamnoserica – Tanyana – Tanyproctoides – Tanyproctus – Tanzanilepis – Tanzanipholis – Tanzanolus – Taphrocephala – Tapinoschema – Tarsocamenta – Tarsovalgus – Taurrhina – Tehuacania – Teinogenys – Telochilus – Telura – Teluroides – Temnoplectron – Temnorhynchus – Tephraea – Tephraeoserica – Terebrogaster – Termaladera – Termitaxis – Termitoderus – Termitodiellus – Termitodius – Termitophilus – Termitopisthes – Termitotrox – Tesarius – Tesserodon – Tesserodoniella – Tetraclipeoides – Tetraechma – Tetragonorrhina – Tetramereia – Tetraodorhina – Tetraproctus – Tetraserica – Teuchestes – Thabina – Thaumastopeus – Theodosia – Theotimius – Thinorycter – Thoracotrichia – Thronistes – Thrymoserica – Thyce – Thyregis – Thyreogonia – Tiarocera – Tibiodrepanus – Tibiotrichius – Tibiovalgus – Tiniocellus – Tlaocera – Tmesorrhina – Tocama – Tomarus – Torynorrhina – Tosevskiana – Toxophyllus – Toxospathius – Trachyserica – Tragiscus – Trapezorrhina – Trematodes – Triacmoserica – Trichaphodiellus – Trichaphodioides – Trichaphodius – Trichaulax – Trichesthes – Trichillidium – Trichillum – Trichinopus – Trichiodera – Trichiomorphus – Trichiopsammobius – Trichiorhyssemus – Trichiotinus – Trichius – Trichocelis – Trichocephala – Trichogomphus – Tricholepis – Tricholontha – Trichomaladera – Trichoneptunides – Trichonotuloides – Trichonotulus – Trichoplus – Trichoschiza – Trichostetha – Trichothyrea – Trigonocnemis – Trigonopeltastes – Trigonophorinus – Trigonophorus – Trigonoscelus – Trinoxia – Triodontella – Triodontonyx – Triodontus – Trioplognathus – Trioplus – Trioserica – Triplognatha – Trissodon – Tristaphodius – Trizogeniates – Trochaloschema – Trochalus – Trogodes – Tropidonitis – Tropinota – Trymodera – Trypoxylus – Tsaratanoplia – Tulbaghia – Turanella –
U

Ulata – Ulomenes – Uloptera – Unidentis – Uroxys –
V

Vadonaria – Vadonidella – Valgoides – Valgus – Vanstaronia – Varencya – Versicorpus – Vezoanus – Vieuella – Viridimicus – Vladimirellus – Volinus – Vulcanocanthon –
W

Wadaia – Walterantus – Wambo – Warwickia – Watkinsia – Webbela – Wernerophylla – Wernoryctes – Widagdous –
X

Xanthotrogus – Xeloma – Xenaclopus – Xenocanthon – Xenoceraspis – Xenodorus – Xenogeniates – Xenoheptaulacus – Xenoloba – Xenoreoderus – Xenoserica – Xenotrochalus – Xenotrogus – Xeropsamobeus – Xinidium – Xiphoscelis – Xiphosceloides – Xylonychus – Xyloryctes – Xylotrupes – Xyridea – Xyrine – Xyroa – Xyrodes –
Y

Yaaxkumukia – Yanovalgus – Youngaphodius – Yvescambefortius –
Z

Zabacana – Zaburina – Zanitanus – Zebinus – Zietzia – Zimbabuephylla – Zomba – Zonocopris –

†Antemnacrassa – †Ateuchites – †Coprinisphaera – †Cretaclopus – †Cretaegialia – †Cretonitis – †Cretoscarabaeus – †Genonota – †Holcorobeus – †Juraclopus – †Mesaclopus – †Mongolrobeus – †Oryctoantiquus – †Paleotrichius – †Prionocephale – †Prophaenognatha – †Protopalnia – †Scelocopris – ?Megaponerophilus – ?Tomogonus – ?†Cretorabaeus – ?†Lithanomala – ?†Proteroscarabaeus
In synonymy

Leuroserica – Orthoserica
Name

Scarabaeidae Latreille, 1802
Synonymy

Scarabaeides Latreille, 1802: 144 (as "Scarabæïdes")

References
Primary references

Latreille, P.A. 1802. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes. Ouvrage faisant suite à l’histoire naturelle générale et particulière, composée par Leclerc de Buffon, et rédigée par C.S. Sonnini, membre de plusieurs sociétés savantes. Familles naturelles des genres. Tome troisième. F. Dufart, Paris, xii + pp. 13–467 + [1 (errata)]. BHL Reference page.

Additional references

Carpaneto, G.M.; Mazziotta, A.; Piattella, E. 2005: Changes in food resources and conservation of scarab beetles: from sheep to dog dung in a green urban area of Rome (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea). Biological conservation, 123(4): 547–556. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2004.12.007
Han, T., Kim, J.I., Yi, D-A., Jeong, J., An, S.L., Park, I.G. & Park, H. 2016. An integrative taxonomy on the locally endangered species of the Korean Scarabaeus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae). Zootaxa 4139(4): 515–526. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4139.4.4 Reference page.
Smith, A.B.T. 2006: A review of the family-group names for the superfamily Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera) with corrections to nomenclature and a current classification. Coleopterists Society monograph, 5: 144–204. DOI: 10.1649/0010-065X(2006)60[144:AROTFN]2.0.CO;2 PDF
Catalogue of Palearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 3 ed. I. Lobl, & A. Smetana, Apollo Books, Stenstrup, Denmark, 2006 ISBN 87-88757-59-5, p. 103
Vitali, F. 2019. Catalogue of the types of the Scarabaeidae in the National Museum of Natural History of Luxembourg (Coleoptera). Zookeys, 814: 95–114. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.814.32059 Reference page.

Links

Australian Faunal Directory
Scarabaeidae in SYNOPSIS OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF THE WORLD
Tree of Life Web Project. 2007. Scarabaeidae. Scarab beetles. Version 04 May 2007 (temporary) in The Tree of Life Web Project
Atlas of scarab beetles (Scarabaeidae) of Russia
Scarabaeidae Latreille, 1802 – Taxon details on Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
Scarabaeidae – Taxon details on National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
Scarabaeidae Taxon details on Fauna Europaea

Vernacular names
Alemannisch: Blatthornchäfer
беларуская: Пласцініставусыя
български: Скарабеи
čeština: Vrubounovití
Deutsch: Blatthornkäfer
English: Scarab beetles
français: Scarabéidés
עברית: זבליתיים
magyar: Ganajtúrófélék
Ido: Skarabeo
日本語: コガネムシ科
lietuvių: Plokštėtaūsiai
Nederlands: Bladsprietkevers
norsk: Skarabider
polski: Żukowate
português: Escaravelho
русский: Пластинчатоусые жуки
svenska: Bladhorningar
Türkçe: Bok böceği
中文: 金龜子科

The family Scarabaeidae, as currently defined, consists of over 30,000 species of beetles worldwide; they are often called scarabs or scarab beetles. The classification of this family has undergone significant change in recent years. Several subfamilies have been elevated to family rank (e.g., Bolboceratidae, Geotrupidae, Glaresidae, Glaphyridae, Hybosoridae, Ochodaeidae, and Pleocomidae), and some reduced to lower ranks. The subfamilies listed in this article are in accordance with those in Bouchard (2011).[1]

Description
Sacred scarab in a cartouche of Thutmosis III from Karnak temple of Amun-Ra, Egypt

Scarabs are stout-bodied beetles, many with bright metallic colours, measuring between 1.5 and 160 mm. They have distinctive, clubbed antennae composed of plates called lamellae that can be compressed into a ball or fanned out like leaves to sense odours. Many species are fossorial, with legs adapted for digging. In some groups males (and sometimes females) have prominent horns on the head and/or pronotum to fight over mates or resources.[2] The largest fossil scarabaeid was Oryctoantiquus borealis with a length of 50 millimetres (2.0 in).[3]
A scarab beetle grub from Australia.

The C-shaped larvae, called grubs, are pale yellow or white. Most adult beetles are nocturnal, although the flower chafers (Cetoniinae) and many leaf chafers (Rutelinae) are active during the day. The grubs mostly live underground or under debris, so are not exposed to sunlight. Many scarabs are scavengers that recycle dung, carrion, or decaying plant material.[4] Others, such as the Japanese beetle, are plant-eaters.

Some of the well-known beetles from the Scarabaeidae are Japanese beetles, dung beetles, June beetles, rose chafers (Australian, European, and North American), rhinoceros beetles, Hercules beetles and Goliath beetles.

Several members of this family have structurally coloured shells which act as left-handed circular polarisers; this was the first-discovered example of circular polarization in nature.[5]
Ancient Egypt

In Ancient Egypt, the dung beetle now known as Scarabaeus sacer (formerly Ateuchus sacer) was revered as sacred. Egyptian amulets representing the sacred scarab beetles were traded throughout the Mediterranean world.[2]
See also

List of Scarabaeidae genera
Scarab artifact
Dung beetle - Scarabaeidae dung beetles play an important role in temperate and tropical environments

References

Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; et al. (2011). "Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)". ZooKeys (88): 1–972. doi:10.3897/zookeys.88.807. ISSN 1313-2989. PMC 3088472. PMID 21594053.
bugguide.net Family Scarabaeidae - Scarab Beetles
Brett Ratcliffe, Dena M. Smith, Diane Marie Erwin. "Oryctoantiquus borealis, New Genus and Species from the Eocene of Oregon, U.S.A., the World's Oldest Fossil Dynastine and Largest Fossil Scarabaeid (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae)". 2009. The Coleopterists Bulletin 59(Mar 2005):127-135 DOI:10.1649/0010-065X(2005)059[0127:OBNGAS]2.0.CO;2
Marcos Paulo Gomes Gonçalves (2017). "Relação Entre Tempo e Besouros em Mata de Cocal" [Relationship Between Meteorological Conditions and Beetles in Mata de Cocal]. Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia (in Portuguese). 32 (4): 543–554. doi:10.1590/0102-7786324003.

A. A. Michelson (1911). "On metallic colourings in birds and insects". Philosophical Magazine. 21 (124): 554–567. doi:10.1080/14786440408637061.

Further reading

RU Ehlers. Current and Future Use of Nematodes in Biocontrol: Practice and Commercial Aspects with Regard to Regulatory Policy Issues. Biocontrol Science and Technology Volume 6, Issue 3, 1996.

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Biology Encyclopedia

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